The Germans in the Pacific Postmarks and Unusual Items (Text Content)

This web page, published by the Military Postal History Society, contains the text content of the single frame The Germans in the Pacific Postmarks and Unusual Items. This exhibit was created by, and is the property of the late Al Kugel, and is being supplied by his heirs as a courtesy to the Military Postal History Society.

Introduction Text

This exhibit will show markings and various unusual philatelic items related to the German postal activities in areas located around the Pacific Basin -- the offices abroad in China and the former colonies of Kiautschou on the Asian mainland plus New Guinea, Samoa and the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Island groups. The time period covered for the colonies extends from the inception of postal services in the late 19th Century to the abrupt ending in 1914 when British Imperial and Japanese occupation forces overcame local resistance as World War I began. In China, the offices remained open until that country declared war on Germany in 1917.

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Updated 11/11/2022

Text Content of Exhibit


This exhibit will show markings and various unusual philatelic items related to the German postal activities in areas located around the Pacific Basin -- the offices abroad in China and the former colonies of Kiautschou on the Asian mainland plus New Guinea, Samoa and the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Island groups. The time period covered for the colonies extends from the inception of postal services in the late 19th Century to the abrupt ending in 1914 when British Imperial and Japanese occupation forces overcame local resistance as World War I began. In China, the offices remained open until that country declared war on Germany in 1917.

Activity in the various territories is shown chronologically in the exhibit, based on the date of opening of the first post office, i.e. China-1886, Samoa-1886, New Guinea-1888, Marshall Is.- 1889, Kiautschou-1897, Mariana & Caroline Is.-1899. Within each territory, the postmarks are also presented chronologically, based on the date when service was initiated at each office. Unusual usages attributed to a single post office are presented in conjunction with that particular office; unusual items applicable to the colony as a whole appear after the markings of the individual post offices.

Official regulations indicated that stamp shortages be met by cash franking, but in February 1908 the postal agent at Kieta, New Guinea created 3 pf. provisionals to meet the demand for printed matter postcards by sailors of the survey vessel Planet. Thus, Michel #20 is considered the rarest stamp of the German colonies, with only 5 or 6 copies existing.

This exhibit contains examples of the markings of all of the 64 German civil post offices and 11 fieldpost offices (associated with the Boxer Uprising) located in the Pacific basin. The significant non-postmark items shown include: unissued Feldpost essays from the Boxer Uprising, cash payment covers from Samoa and Kiautschou; provisionally overprinted stamps from China, New Guinea, Kiautschou and the Carolines (typhoon bisect plus 1910 Ponape provisionals); a non-philatelic Marshall Islands atoll post cover; covers from the German postal despatch of the last Spanish mails from the Carolines and the Marianas; and World War I fieldpost and/or censored covers from Kiautschou, New Guinea and Samoa.

The German era in the Pacific lasted but three decades but was rich philatelically. Considering the difficulty of assembling such an exhibit, it should be borne in mind that practically all mail was generated by a tiny European population. The number of colonial inhabitants grew from 2,000 in 1904 to 6,500 in 1914, but was only the equivalent of a small market town in Germany. Of this latter total, 4,500 lived in Kiautschou and only 2,000 on all of the islands combined.


In the aftermath of the Opium War, starting in 1842 a number of treaty ports along the Chinese coast were opened to foreign commerce. In most of these, post offices were established by the concessionaires in order to provide reliable communications with the home countries. Germany was a relative latecomer in this activity, opening its first postal agency at Shanghai on 16 August 1886. The German offices continued in operation until 16 March 1917, when China broke off diplomatic relations with Germany during World War I.


The Earliest Recorded Cancellation used in German China Shanghai Eingeschrieben. Ne 324, f The post office in Shanghai opened on 16 August 1886 when its supply of stamps arrived on the S.S. Oder. The postal clerks cancelled the outgoing mail on 28 August 1886 in order to prepare the mail sacks for the ship's departure back to Germany the following day. Shanghai Postmark used : ae < from June 1894 a to December 1898 Eingeschrieben J Ne 998. jad Postmark used from 18 July 1898 to 1906. CHINA Shanghai Postmark used from 1 December 1898 to 1908 Schanghai Postmark used from April 1905 to 16 March 1917 Feevred SEE Ae gas: A FR Fite wees od 2 Shanghai _ ; Eingeschrieben. | fk, LM 997. i “es Schanghai 359 ._" Celucet 2 + ; 4 Ne bo 3 2 i ee es tle OSes, he Kae lee’, [9 Otte Ae PCA ec... - faces. Meritizve. ate EM by Reis ther, Pmecsionsiy YashVraal oe O Wapo . The spelling of the name of the city was "Germanized” to Schanghai in 1905 and remained in that form until the post office was closed in 1917. ee lL. UCU CHINA Tientsin : 3: < : Postmark used from vee Mons f Sian 3 1 April 1893 to October 1899 Postmark used from 15 October 1899 to 16 March 1917 bP. See GE Mert Mb pu Onut hve ben? Teva . Deutfcbe Aeeanel, Hingeschrieben. AAD Lt HH No. 26 as a al cet x Tientsin & : eae r <4 = ¥ R Tientsin ; fo 296 : Or = ‘ Postmark used from September 1902 to 16 March 1917 Ci Lots Loge Pe The second German postmark used in China was put into service on 1 April 1893 at the postal agency in Tientsin. CHINA Tschifu Postmark used from 1 January 1900 to 16 March 1917 Futschau rene é - ee Postkarte. 3 eee ae : g ee Postmark used from : Eingeschrieben. 18 June 1900 to S Ni 829 16 March 1917 5 ee te | 3 | In connection with a shortage of 5 pfennig stamps at Foochow, 1,400 copies of the 10 pf. value were surcharged and placed on sale on 7 July 1900 and an additional 2.600 copies on 7 November. CHINA Hankau Deutfhe Keichspoft Pofttarte | Provisional marking used from 1 to 27 April 1900 eg: [a Wobhnung ..... (Gtrafe und Sausnummer) aS /nletnt LG Sa : be, | — Postmark used from 27 April 1900 to es: 86240 16 March 1917 R Hankau | | Ne AG = ~ The post office at Hankow was opened on 1 April 1900 using a provisional cancellation for the first several weeks. (The version with a second line in Chinese was used only during the first few days -- the card shown above is dated 2 April in manuscript on reverse.) CHINA DHeutfcde Reichspoft Seld-Pofttarte 4 . ~ J ae . oy ODTMUG 65 ce ee NN ee VIN 8 ee C H | N A S "und Sausnummer) Eee yY /9g0 Tongku Provisional marking used from 8 September to 31 October 1900 Postmark used from 1 November 1900 to 30 April 1906 When the post office at Tongku opened on 8 September 1900, the normal steel postmark was not available. Thus, a provisional marking was used for the first two months. Tschiangling CHINA Provisional marking used from 14 December 1901 to 21 March 1902 Nanliu Provisional marking used from 21 March to 1 June 1902 These stations were located along the Shantung Railway being constructed by the Germans. Their markings were used only in connection with mail that was actually postmarked on the trains with TPO markings. CHINA Chinwangtau Provisional marking used from 1 December 1901 to 30 January 1902 Pschinwangtan Eh Pe sciridke . Tschinwangtau Ne 264 ; Postmark used from 15 January 1902 to 10 March 1906 The post office at Chinwangtau opened late in 1901, using a provisional marking at first, then a permanent cds. Shanhaikuan Provisional marking used from 1 September to 30 November 1901 Schanhaikuan Postmark used from 1 March to 31 October 1902 Tschinkiang Postmark used from 28 October 1901 to 16 March 1917. ry anhaikwa : em peutsclie ib Peking Provisional marking used from 11 September to 13 November 1900 UE 0 Dons * : : Peking: if 2 tS. Deutsche Pat i _ | Kingeschrieben. Te Tee TE FAT En) naa BOP Postmark used from 14 November 1900 to 15 March 1917 When the post office opened at Peking on 11 September 1900, the normal steel postmark was not available. As a result, a temporary marking carved out of wood was used for the first two months. CHINA Nanking Lingchreiben. « & Ps Postmark used from 1 January 1903 to 16 March 1917 Sg: COA ee WL Werrn A, Diercking, i lunicipal Council, Nanking (China) . Aa (Deutsche Fost) Eingeschrieben. ‘Shanghai. Itschang Postmark used from 11 February 1903 to 1 September 1908 2 7 - (China Cececl Cis, sonst bos ge | Einges il. Ne 35 CHINA Amoy Postmark used from 12 June 1902 to mid-1913 Postmark used from mid-1913 to 16 March 1917 As was the case elsewhere, the second postmark for Amoy changed the spelling of the city. CHINA Weihsien Postmark used from 1 June 1902 to 1 September 1914 Canton . De Weihsien a 3 : ; Deutsche Post | DA , . Kingeschriehen. a2 BAS dé a? } LM 713. |] Pee eae MMR RMA A EEO B IR SRE EEE OTe Abjender: SEO Canton (Deutsche Post). BUREN aT Ra Postmark used from 2 June 1902 to mid-1913 Kanton ~~ Der pbere Teil. des Sdheines ijt vom Ubjender Postmark used from isgufiillen. id-1913 . 10) 66m i ie = es : ge f . arc a Ble As in the case in several other offices, a second postmark used at Canton had the name of the city "Germanized." CHINA Tschingtschoufu Provisional marking used ; from 15 June to “ ‘ 31 October ABU We BAHNPOST 4 — Le Loe Postmark used from 1 November 1903 to 31 December 1905 | @schingtschoufa | - : (China) (@eutsche Post) M 373 WEEN EE TY OO ES ew eee Chingchowfu initially used its station mark in connection with the TPO of the Shantung Railway, but a regular postal facility subsequently operated there. CHINA Tschoutsun Provisional marking used from 15 November 1903 to 15 January 1904 Tschoutsun (China) (Deutsche Post) , SNe 2) Postmark used from Clas Zo UHI ah Maa © 16 January 1904 to 31 December 1905 “y / WA Chowtsun also used its station mark initially in connection with the TPO of the Shantung Railway, but a regular postal facility subsequently operated there. CHINA Tsinanfu Postmark used from 16 March 1904 to 16 March 1917 2 eC Swatau : (Deutsche Post) : Ne 251 Postmark used from 17 May 1904 to 16 March 1917 Sinanfu and Swatow were the last two German post offices opened in China. Each used only a single postmark. CHINA Shanghai-Tientsin Seepost Postmark used from 11 May 1901 to July 1914 H+ HF HD Yangtse-Linie Seepost Gans gua teeter oe ee Postmark used from 30 November 1903 to 3 November 1911 7 Shanghai Deutsche Post Ne 518 The Germans operated two seapost services in Chinese waters, using appropriate postal markings on the mail. CHINA -- BOXER UPRISING In June 1900 members of an ultranationalist movement known as the Boxers attacked foreign nationals and Chinese Christians in North China. In response, a multinational military relief operation was organized by the Great Powers, including Germany. Once sufficient Allied forces arrived, their superior firepower quickly routed the Boxers and lifted the siege of Peking, with pacification of the outlying areas following shortly thereafter. CHINA. 2 Feldpost Forerunners EP KARTE. — WELTPOSTVEREIN. CARTE POSTALE. — UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE, CARD. — UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION, Zee eee ee ZZw ope marking used from June to August 1900 in Tientsin "Feldpostbrief" side’ orate papeea seo eg eg PS eS eS es esses Ses es ess eS SES CS HIN A, Sbebehetbeb chet cb ebebeapoey POSTK ARTE. — WELTPOSTVERE LY, ee CARTE POST ALE. — UNION PO AL K CIN vee 2 F Tongku forerunner cancel g used from 9 August to aI: 2 September 1900 ey SF a md || Sa EEEELEE a eye Tek eet ol ouresTeb ee eetee renee eetee eee ye IGA GaGaGAGaGAGaGa abaGACIc eG IcIe Prior to 1 September 1900, when the fieldpost service of the East Asia Expeditionary Corps was established at Tientsin, military mail was processed by the civil post office in Tientsin with a side marking of "Feldpostbrief" being applied to denote postage-free status. In addition, a "forerunner" fieldpost cancel carved out of wood was used at Tongku until the regular FPO opened in early September 1900. CHINA Kais. Deutsche Feldpost-Expedition Boxer Uprising DseutTscoHE Rerorspost. Feld-Postkarte. 3D, ge f , : ¥ G = i Marking used from ea, F WHET : i 7 . 1 September © Pe ee ae oe 18 October 1900 Bs a LAAL Sg QO Be ae L070 bey Ue Fi ee Ne he ee EC / ee a Le va WO Di MY veshaden alc ee Png fs Yo. Y C, tin Glug Ante nn pln & Sir DLCs pr v. An @, ee K. D. Feldpostexped. des Ostasiatischen Expeditionscorps Faltpoteedaae : Eingeschrieben, a. — Ht 2 06 18 October 1900 , to 31 August 1901 a ann cok Hee ee The postal staff of the East Asia Expeditionary Corps set up operations at Tientsin on 1 September 1900. Two different postmarks were used at the main military post office; the first served relatively briefly and is scarce. CHINA Feld-poststation No. 2 Boxer Uprising Marking used from 11 September 1900 to 31 August 1901 oa ee ey C Pe A te . 7, YAVOW liany ner” ee oy My). Graf Walderser) Ge tA ft Le atl Ae Divs uf foe DEUTSCHE REICH SPOST. Feld-Postkarte. Marking used from 2 September 1900 to end of April 1901 Numbered fieldpost stations were opened beginning on 2 September 1900. FPS No. 1 was located at Kaumi in the Kiautschou protectorate and is shown under that colony. FPS No. 2 operated in Peking. (The cover shown above was sent by Field Marshall Count von Waldersee, the commander-in-chief of all Allied forces in China, with his seal on the reverse.) FPS No. 3 was located at Yangtsun. CHINA Feld-poststation No. 4 Boxer Uprising S +\ Ss : {= a Pas eos em E>) , S?/. \ Noe 8 Marking used from 2 September 1900 to 31 August 1901 Feld-poststation No. 5 Marking used from 3 September to 7 November 1900 Feldpoststation Nr. 5 der |. Armee. rinten. FPS No. 4 operated in Tongku, while FPS No. 5 was located at Tientsin. The latter postmark was less frequently used because of the presence of the Base Post Office in Tientsin. Registered mail is particularly scarce. CHINA Feld-poststation No. 6 Boxer Uprising 7” Deutfche Reichspoft Seld-Pofttarte an é Marking used from 18 April to 25 July 1901 i s - “3 (Strafe und Surman) Sage a Feld-poststation No. 7 Be iS Marking used from : Ty | 4 } 2 November 1900 HA to 25 July 1901 FPS No. 6 is the scarcest of the German FPS markings, being in use for only 10 weeks. When the card shown was posted, it was located at Fuping. FPS No. 7 operated at Paotingfu; this office also had a side mark as shown CHINA Feld-poststation No. 8 Boxer Uprising Marking used from 26 November 1900 to 31 August 1901 Feld-poststation No. 9 a He on oe eS POS IMPERIAL CHINESE RAILWAYS.-Telegraph De; fautment. Dy t [= |9: ea POST CARD. |= % ce aN tg S MCP ee : Address side. Marking used from 22 May to 31 August 1901 1p O04} JUEAeA 07 posN eq 07 PxABO STU ¢serouesxouLe Xoy ydeoxe smuerseyo, s e 4 ie To be sta’ ed by’Sending and receiving stations, on this side only and . forwarded by telegraph messengers as telegrams. go U1 . FPS No. 8 operated at Shanhaikuan. FPS No. 9 was located at Peithaho; it was in operation for only three months and is the second scarcest of the FPS markings. CHINA Feld-poststation No. 10 Boxer Uprising Marking used from 21 May to 31 August 1901 Peking Kaiserpalast fei PO Side marking used 3 A in 1900-1901 pt oe + a Mg we Fe yo BA AANA Zein OX 8 FPS No. 10 operated at Kaiping. An unnumbered fieldpost office was set up in the Imperial Palace in Peking. Its side mark was used to denote the origin of the mail, but a normal postmark was also applied at FPS No. 2. CHINA Feld-poststation Taku/Siidfort Boxer Uprising Pees as oe f : Feld-Postkarte. | Marking used from 9 November 1900 to 1 January 1901 Kaiserlich Deutsche Bahnpost Peking Taku eutfche Reichspoft Dofttarte ca Dy : es ZA a : Marking used from 19 October 1900 to 25 March 1901 An unnumbered fieldpost office was set up in the South Fort at Taku, which used the unusual postmark shown above. Only one TPO marking is found on military mail; it was used on the railway line from Peking to Taku, which had to be largely reconstructed due to destruction by the Boxers. CHINA Field Telegrams Boxer Uprising ~ §$eldtelegramm (Einfchreiben!) An Se ree i Tae PE €) eS ee _ Oftafiat. Vb’. Gh ee Estadron Bataillon | _ 4 Ub, Pi x Batterie — So ... Rompagnie . Rolonne | reagents E r én “angers. Serie . 8 a Yir.: Me Uf _¥ 606_ $ Aollonsher, Hebehecnds, Wehoneyers ‘Berlin oe am . Warten umfeitig. } : : ¢ fe 4 £ ) erfiit, das obige Celegramm oem Empfanger sugufiellen oder, falls diefer fid a a follte, die Karte mit ent{precbendem Dermert weiterifenden. “ o. S4ldtetegramm. egrapben- Yummer Yammer der Wachricht a Cid -4 YO Abfender : Fy L: A Recht deutlidy jehreiben! night lg ref afore : Incoming field telegrams were required to be registered. No postage was applied in China, as all fees had been paid by the sender. Outgoing telegrams were required to be prepaid. The above receipt was issued to an enlisted man, as indicated by the 3 mark rate, as officers were charged 6 marks for the same service. CHINA Money Order Receipt Boxer Uprising The German fieldpost offices were authorized and equipped to issue money orders. Above example was issued to the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces in North China, Field Marshal Count Waldersee, who sent a payment of 800 marks on 13 December 1900. A most unusual usage. CHINA Deutsches Lager/Shanghai Boxer Uprising Postkarte Hee a. of copggileta Side marking ay uw Son : used in 1902 Postdienstst. Langfang Side marking used from July 1901 to 1906 io, Navan During the occupation period, some of the military units had postal collection agencies. In turn, some of these had office markings which were applied to mail. Two such examples are shown above. CHINA = Garnison Verwaltungs Boxer Uprising Commission Yangtsun — Pofttarte _ a4! Deutsche Post Ne 1 Deutsche Abteilung der Internat. Polizei Deutsche Abteilung POSTCA R D _,, dor. internat. Palicel. 46/7 edi fior z= Steter. Y We The German fieldpost system in North China was discontinued on 31 August 1901, and the East Asia Expeditionary Corps troops largely withdrawn between June and September of that year. The remaining forces, reconstituted as the East Asia Occupation Brigade, remained in North China until 30 June 1906. Above examples show mail from the occupation period with unit markings of the "Yangtsun Garrison Administrative Commission" and the "German Detachment of the International Police." CHINA Naval Hospital -- Yokohama Boxer Uprising of. Vi eel iLO Vintelu lon J) foliar fo BAD es of Mr VaALN c/ | D q | g Aa : Steen & ) fon a i ‘ fo P-L PA EL. ra tia Ze é ye 6 C€ PHEITES Yokohama hospital received the more seriously wounded patients during the Boxer Uprising. which assessed postage due. In 1878 the German Navy established a hospital in Yokohama, Japan for treating its sailors and merchant seamen. This hospital was provided with its own datestamp in 1897. Better equipped than the field hospitals in China, the The free frank accompanied patients from China to Japan, but it applied only to mail to and from Germany and its colonies. It was not recognized by the Japanese post office, as in the case of the inbound cover to the hospital, CHINA Return to Germany Boxer Uprising eee ? = Nt tabadttwyr Vee Cl, Hang ae G G ie 12 Mtn On 4 September 1901 S.S. Crefeld left Taku with troops of the The German East Asia Expeditionary Corps bound for Bremerhaven, arriving on 29 October. It used an unofficial "postmark" from late August until late October. S.S. Bahia used a similar unofficial marking on its voyage, from 9 September to 26 October 1901. S.S. Pisa's supply of 5 pf. stamps was exhausted on the outward journey so that between July and September 1902 prepayment of postage on postcards was noted with a small manuscript "5" in the bottom left corner and the ship's postmark struck at top left. Postage was applied when the mail was delivered to Tientsin on the outbound journey or to the Navy Post Office in Berlin on the inbound leg. GERMAN OFFICES IN CHINA K. D. Feld-Poststation No. 4 Disaster Mail . 21 February 1901 Some of the mail sent by German troops engaged in suppressing the Boxer Uprising was sent back to the home country via the German post office in Shanghai. However, some of it was damaged in a fire started by exploding fireworks on 28 February 1901. Such mail that could be salvaged received a special cachet inscribed "Damaged by Accidental Fire in the Shanghai Post Office." It appears that the military mail that was subject to this hazard had _ been posted between 18 and 24 February. se Fane cover originated at FPO 4 in eae CHINA = SS Overprinted Numeral Boxer Uprising & Eagle Postal Paper Se ie ea. Deutfhe Keicdspoft Dofttarte An oA > poftverein stale universelle Pofttarte mit Antwort — Woedltpoftverein Carte postale avec réponse payée — Union postale universell OIC ae luv fiir die Adreffe At the outbreak of the Boxer Uprising, German post offices abroad in China had stocks of the Numeral & Eagle adhesives and postal cards diagonally overprinted "China" as well as the 2 mark unoverprinted definitive. While German military personnel had a free franking privilege for normal letters and postcards, they were required to pay for special services, including overweight letters, parcel post, registered and value-declared mail, in addition to outgoing field telegrams. As a result, the Shanghai post office provided supplies of the available postal paper for use in the various fieldpost offices. CHINA Unoverprinted Numeral Boxer Uprising & Eagle Postal Paper DCEO GEE VERE ee Doftfarte — Weltpoftverein Carte postale — Union, postale universelle Cae CC TEE DOCOMO DE MO TH Wa WOW WO OW TW YOO PO Od POD OY POO WY TOE HO TO UBL GUAM BRRCA Tne EBT DLN When heavy usage caused supplies of the overprinted stamps to run low, unoverprinted stamps were obtained from German ships in Chinese waters. Those supplied to the fieldpost offices were mostly the 5, 10 and 20 pf. denominations. Other values were then sent out from Germany for fieldpost use and, at least, to the German civil post offices in Peking and Tongku. The 2 and 25 pf. stamps were never sent out officially, but some of these were brought or sent privately. CHINA a Unoverprinted Numeral Boxer Uprising & Eagle Postal Paper mS eut(che Reichspoft 997979979 99390990997 2993399939998 0F990030959398395399893833893 35733 (392399 II7F72I77293992993793293993993993999589393897933939999995 85995 ! Feldposistation Nr. 8 | Kingeschreben. | | Ae 152. NV “ONY Ma ae Unoverprinted German stamps and postal stationery used in China during this period were called "Petschili Provisionals," being named after the province where the Boxer Uprising took place. This material was valid for postage in both the fieldpost and civil offices abroad until 31 December 1902. CHINA Unoverprinted Numeral Boxer Uprising & Eagle Postal Paper Wobnung (Strafe und Hausnun sf Kaiserlich Deutsch Feldpostexpedition Eingeschrieben. 8 451 v - e A eigenen SU Red ri oncom diana Ra } i 2 biltviMl yi A substantial variety of German postal stationery was used in the fieldpost offices, including imprinted envelopes, lettercards and wrappers for printed matter. Some of these were sent for by enterprising philatelists, but represent very unusual usages. CHINA : Unoverprinted Germania Boxer Uprising Postal Paper Deut(che Reichspott Dofttarte tperein > universelle To meet heavy postal needs, the German P.O. in Shanghai ordered supplies of eleven values of the new Germania definitives (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80 pf., 1, 2 and 3 marks) as well as postal cards. In November 1900 these were distributed to the Base Fieldpost Office in Tientsin and the numbered fieldpost stations. Other values of this issue, privately brought or sent to China, were accepted as valid for postage although they are seldom seen. CHINA Unoverprinted Germania Boxer Uprising Postal Paper autfcbe Reichapoft - Vii fitarte Pye e Y Df Destise Reichspoft — Dofttarte beffimmt.. (Gtrafe und Hausnummer) Unoverprinted Germania postal stationery was used in a variety of forms, including printed matter postal cards, cards with attached reply and even the "1900" commemorative cards. These were available for use in both the German fieldpost and civil offices. CHINA Petschili Provisional Usage Boxer Uprising Certain of values of the Germania series were not sold at the postal counters in China, but were valid for postage, as indicated by the use of a 5 mark is | Ly stamp on large registered - envelope from Peking. = fe PEE mH Qo = “SH fi eH es sae Ee a CHINA Feldpost Essays Boxer Uprising The decision to send field post offices to China created the possibility that valuable postage stamps could fall into the hands of the Boxers. As a result, in 1900 the Reichsdruckerei in Berlin prepared a series of trial overprints on mark value stamps, the theory being that if any of the stamps were captured by the insurgents, they could be demonetized. Because the early battlefield successes of the Allies made it unlikely that stamps would fall into Boxer hands, the idea of overprints was dropped. Only this one set of seven stamps, each different in denomination or in the size or color of the overprint, is in private hands. CHINA Tientsin Postmaster Provisionals Boxer Uprising eB] © Dofttarte — Weltpoftverein Carte postale — Union postale universelle Slur fiir die Adreffe AL AEE FRE PR TECH TRETPTWWT P OE TT TE WOTPONEPO Wo OOO UO UGE PPO EE YOY Wed COP Fee POU OY OOD MOY De EN Wee WEE i Supplies of Numeral & Eagle "China" overprints were exhausted in the Tientsin post office in November (50 pf.) and December 1900. However, the Germania "China" overprints would not be available until February 1901, so unoverprinted Germanias were used to bridge the gap. However, the German post office in China accepted Chinese dollars at 2.50 marks per dollar while these traded at 2 marks on the open market. Thus, the purchase of unoverprinted stamps would have resulted in a windfall of 25% if shipped back to Germany. Therefore, the Tientsin postmaster ordered his new Germania stamps overprinted with a wooden handstamp reading "China." CHINA Tientsin Postmaster Provisionals Boxer Uprising Tientsin on -¢ Kingeschrieben. | Ne 181. : . & ees (I, Ve Wildatsh Joyal V1/ Me gt The quantities produced of the Tientsin overprints were: 10 pf.. 4,000; 5 & 20 pf., 2,000 each; 3 pf., 1,000; 30, 50 and 80 pf., 300 each. These also remained valid for postage until 31 December 1902. On cover usage of the higher values is very scarce, with overfranking being the norm. CHINA Tientsin Postmaster Provisionals Boxer Uprising Reportedly the only example of a 5 pf. postal card with Provisional Overprint used in period. Several other items that were overprinted by the Tientsin postmaster, presumably by favor, have not achieved catalogue status. These include the 5 pf. Germania card shown above (signed by Friedemann), a CHINA Tientsin Postmaster Provisionals Boxer Uprising Reportedly the only example of a 10 pf. Eagle design postal card with Provisional Overprint. Among the other items that were overprinted by the Tientsin postmaster, presumably by favor, that have not achieved catalogue status are the 10 pf. Eagle postal card shown above (Jakubek certificate). CHINA Tientsin Provisionals Boxer Uprising In addition to the seven values that were regularly sold at the Tientsin post office, four additional values were prepared, with the 40 pf. known both mint and used during period. Only five mint copies of the 25 pf. are recorded. Of the 2 and 3 mark values, only two copies of each (one mint and one postmarked) were made. CHINA Overprinted Germania Issue Boxer Uprising In January-February 1901, the new Germania definitives with a "China" overprint were issued for use at the post offices in that country. These were theoretically available in the fieldpost offices as well as the civil ones, but examples with military postmarks are quite elusive. CHINA : Overprinted Germania Issue Boxer Uprising Deutfche Reicdspoft GT j ae Dofttarte oy Ss a ‘ — S au q ee oe uv aa ler WN ew iG es S 3 i es in 2 Qa ta ee oe 2 ee (Gtrafe und Sausnummer) Poftfarfe — Weltpofiverein Carte postale — Union postale universelle HE UU eee Postal cards in the Germania design with "China" overprint were also sold at the fieldpost offices, although as is the case with the stamps, examples with military postmarks are elusive. CHINA Overprinted Germania Issue Boxer Uprising A fieldpost packet from the military paymaster in Tientsin to Germany. Official mail was postage free, but the 20 pf. insurance fee for a value declared letter was paid with an overprinted Germania stamp. A very unusual usage. CHINA Kiautschou Yacht Issue Boxer Uprising i Deut(che Reichspoft Doftfarte SEU ‘land | ERE ‘BRIEF -poftpereit ee ( i stale universelle OURO ACB ae RIE aT RT Rta eee Se Wobnung BU RUBVR NEUEN ENR EE Se RS B RATT ETRE BBY EEO) a THE In April 1901 the stocks of Germania "China” overprints that had been delivered to Peking ran out. To cover this shortage, stamps and postal cards of the Kiautschou colony were authorized for provisional use. These can be identified by cancels of the civil or military (FPS No. 2) post offices in Peking. Valid for postage (outside Kiautschou) until 31 December 1902. CHINA Kiautschou Yacht Issue Boxer Uprising t OES TT ITE e Fan Union Postale Universelle. f a i EPs £eShRR RABI 4 : 4 ee 3s - 4 ci Scat aca p ee nhs. She pe ptt Poftfarte — Weltpoftverein Carte postale — Union postale universelle et TUTTO TCC CC ae QO Liatnahe! Postmark used from 26 January 1898 to 12 March 1899 The first shore-based postal facility in Kiautschou was designated as a Naval Fieldpost office as its early clientele consisted almost exclusively of German sailors and marines. Note the misspelling of "Tsingtau" in the cds. KIAUTSCHOU Tsintaufort Naval Fieldpost LMNIRIE EN OBA EUR RA RTBU Dofttarfe — Weltpoftverein dte Adreffe - GO Ve a ag gpa mm aT eeapAL OTA ATTBLAT BENT OT(U ETE PTT ANT By ain oe Sole Marking observed used in February and March 1898 Shipboard supplies of the 10 pf. overprinted cards, which were sold to sailors and marines for 5 pf., ran out due to heavy demand, so an auxiliary two-line marking was applied to normal cards. Friedemann ascribes the origin of such cards to the S.M.S. Irene. KIAUTSCHOU Tsintanfort - ——= Postmark used from 12 March to 15 May 1899 To indicate that the post office was available for commercial as well as military mail, the "Naval Fieldpost" portion of the inscription was excised from the postmark less than two months later. KIAUTSCHOU Tsintau bland | oe Linis po ( : Carte postdle ~ stale? HORUS DURUM BSE TTY SL ABNER RY MBER MBSE EBD HUGE Tae WAbddn Par RR] tuba, taonat Get fal ov Nicaea tne in Hobs Postmark used from 16 May 1898 to early May 1899 Correction of the official misspelling "Tsintan" was ordered on 30 March 1898, and a new standardized postmark inscribed "Tsintau" was introduced. As Kiautschou had not been declared a protectorate when this device was ordered, it was properly inscribed "China" at the foot. KIAUTSCHOU Tsintau Sinodveci® OQWVLOAVECVOOEN Deut(che — pied #999999 9999 W999 9 999.9999 99999 9999'999599959950,096050 ar we SP PIRPIFFHFI> III III9 92929999399 5359937937393979727000990F0% 0056 Postmark used from early May to 23 December 1899 On 27 April 1898 Kiautschou was declared a German protectorate. As a result, another new datestamp was ordered, this time inscribed with the name of the colony rather than "China” at the bottom. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau EOE MOR TETCISs a Denti dland i BEE , CKiautschon) Eingeschriehen. fo 276. Weltpoftverein oar iM aA Tsingtau _(Kiautschou Kingesehrieben. Ne 241, Ri Bhe-tavegye- ae) pone Postmark used from 19 December 1899 to 6 November 1914 Eventually it was decided that the name of the main town should be more appropriately spelled with a "g" in the middle. Thus, the final version of the wording on the postmarks of Tsingtau was settled. Note that the first cds with this spelling had "stars" on both sides of the device. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau Postmark used from 5 January 1900 to 6 November 1914 In the following month, a similar postmarking device was introduced. This cds had the code letter "a" on the right-hand side of the outer ring. It was the most widely used of any of the cancels from the colony. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau Deutf{[dhe Reichspo ft. A aANG oN Seldpojtfarte. | Aer 3) NG cc Ty ao “ad Vpildbesse,, bie — i ee | Postmark used from 1 April 1901 to 6 November 1914 Another similar postmarking device was placed in service in the following year. In this case, it had the code letter "b" on the right-hand side of the outer ring. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau SDOWNNG » {Strafie und Sausnummer) Postmark used from July 1906 to 6 November 1914 A further type of postmark was introduced in 1906, with "bridges" in the crescents above and below the date line. This marking was used contemporaneously with several other devices up to the beginning of World War I. KIAUTSCHOU Tsing-tao/China In his handbook, Dr. Eduard Ey includes a Chinese marking inscribed “Tsingtao-China" in the list of postmarks used in Kiautschou, but neither illustrates the device nor provides any details on when or by whom it was used. However, the mark on the above postcard is presumably the one referred to and is included here for reference. KIAUTSCHOU "Prinz Karneval" Post Office, Tsingtau Griisse - B sist avin - Fo viele Marking used on 21 February 1903 Unrecorded by Friedemann, the handstamp's placement away from the stamp suggests the unofficial character of this “post office." However, the card was properly franked and has an appropriate Milwaukee receiving mark. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau First Provisional Tsingtau _ (Biautschou Kingesehrieben. |. Ne 208. / = A f Ss Cala 4 baf ch; ; eS a fog + a Oy — | Usage from 9 May 1900 to 31 December 1901 When a relief force arrived on the S.S. Dresden on 20 April 1900, the 5 pf. stamps to send postcards home became exhausted. Thus, 50,000 copies of the 10 pf. stamps were overprinted "5 Pfg." at the mission printing plant and placed on sale on 9 May. After the first day, colored lines were drawn under the new denomination to distinguish them from the unsurcharged stamps. Thus, stamps can be found with blue lines, violet lines or no lines. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau Cash Franking Usage from 29 June to 31 July 1900 To try to avoid the need for further surcharging, it was decided that locally-addressed letters presented at the counter would be marked in manuscript as having been paid in cash.. Only 16 examples of such mail have been recorded; above example has the designation "Sch," indicating the money was received by Postmaster Schulte. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau Second Provisional Usage from 19 July 1900 to 31 December 1901 A similar situation occurred when the S.S. K6ln arrived on 16 June 1900. Because the replacement stamps which had been ordered were expected to arrive shortly from Berlin, this time only 2,000 stamps were overprinted "5 Pf." and placed on sale on 19 July. In this case, all copies had the new denomination underlined in blue. KIAUTSCHOU Taputur Vobnung (Gtrafe und Sausnummer) Postmark used from 23 July 1900 to September 1914 The second post office in the colony was opened at Taputur at the time of the influx of forces into China in connection with the Boxer uprising. On opening day (see postcard above) there was a shortage of 5 pfennig stamps. As a result, 200 of the 2,000 copies of the second Tsingtau provisionals were sent to Taputur. The single postmark was used until the Japanese occupation at the beginning of World War I. KIAUTSCHOU Feld-Poststation No. 1 From 5 July 1901 to 14 January 1902 the the cds of Field Post Station No. 1 continued in use at the Kaumi civil post office. In the case of the above cover, a provisional registration label was affixed, being inscribed in manuscript "Kaumi/German Post." The cover is postmarked on 11 December 1901 and backstamped on arrival in Wiesbaden on 18 January 1902. KIAUTSCHOU Kaumi Cantyehon) “<¥ Poe ache 19% : ‘| Mingeschrieben. : oe ee Postmark used from 14 January 1902 to 31 March 1906 In 1902, the civil post office at Kaumi received its normal postmark. However, because it was not in the colony proper, the cds was inscribed "German Post," rather than "Kiautschou" at the bottom. KIAUTSCHOU Kiautschou (City) S AON Lf a — oe Oe \ e Vo, 4 ; ge \ e \ CBAéet. Let tad tteslle Meet os Postmark used from 26 September to 31 December 1900 In September 1900, a small detachment of marines was sent to Kiautschou City to provide security for the construction of the Shantung Railway. A field post office was provided for their use. This facility was converted to civil use on 27 October, although it continued to use the same postmark until the end of the year. KIAUTSCHOU Kiautschou (City) Postmark used from 1 January 1901 to 31 December 1905. In 1901, the civil post office in Kiautschou City received its normal postmark. because this office was located in the leased territory rather than in the colony proper, the cds was inscribed “German Post” at the bottom. Initially, German Offices in China stamps were used there. KIAUTSCHOU Kiautschou (City) In due course, the use of German China stamps was phased out and those of the Kiautschou colony were substituted. Whey TOC O CCC eo | a Deutfdbland |- Mii KIAUTSCHOU Tsangkou eae = ‘ hina ‘ceSRS a= . oN a Tsangkou (Kiautschow) imgeschrieben, 46 a ry, . - Pofttat Tsangkou (Kiautschou) elfpoftreretn Carte postale Eingeschrieben. h postale universelle Ne 403 Postmark used from 1 April 1901 to 6 December 1904 and from 1 May 1913 to September 1914 Tsangkou was located on the Tsingtau-Kiautschou portion of the Shantung Railway line. It operated as a normal post office until 1904, when it was redesignated an auxiliary postal agency. At that time, its normal cds was transferred to Litsun, where it was used from December 1904 to March 1905. From 1905 through the end of April 1913, mail from Tsangkou was marked with a two-line "Posthuelfstelle Tsangkou” handstamp. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau-Tapautau Postmark used from April 1905 to September 1914 In 1905, a post office was opened at Tapautau, which is slightly to the north of Tsingtau. As was the case of all of the smaller offices in Kiautschou, it only used a single postmark from opening until the Japanese occupation. KIAUTSCHOU Litsun For several months prior to the opening of a normal postal facility, mail collected at Litsun received a "side mark” (nebenstempel) before being transported to Tsangkou for postmarking, Cover franked at printed matter rate of 3 pfennig was used on earliest recorded | date for this marking. Marking used from 7 December 1904 to March 1905 The standard Litsun postmark was in use at this office on the Lauschan Peninsula east of Tsingtau from March 1905 until 20 September 1914. "— Giautsehou)— KIAUTSCHOU Mecklenburghaus = ‘2 _ Mecklenburghaus was the name x _of a sanitarium located in the Ox “eee 8 _ Lauschan Mountains. Prior to Re a the opening of a regular post Purge office, mail originating there received a side mark and was transported to Litsun for _ postmarking. 9 i pean Marking used from 13 September 1905 to 22 July 1909 ap he a a a = 1S S n i = a & 2 £ a 8 = = Ee = os oe 3 1s Ss g a oO & = A second type of side mark has been discovered recently, reading "Sanitarium Mecklenburghaus/ auxiliary postal facility.” (¢-? Only a single example recorded to date, used 10 December 1908. as pe Salo The standard postmark of Mecklenburghaus was used from 23 July 1909 to 18 September 1914. Yor a ae = Adolf Haupt _ Tsingtau KIAUTSCHOU Syfang Syfang was located in close proximity to Tsingtau. For three months prior to the opening of a regular post office, mail originating there received a side mark and was transported to the nearby main post office for canceling. Card sent to German naval officer in Hong Kong was used on the earliest recorded date for this marking. Wobnung we “7 - Be GL OC-e = Marking used from 1 August ee ga? A ae oo A normal post office was opened at Syfang in late 1906. It used only a single postmark until the Japanese occupation at the beginning of World War I. Postmark used from 1 November 1906 to September 1914 Splang (iagisehou)) gl? 75 eet: OS KIAUTSCHOU Schatsykou Postmark used from 5 July 1909 to September 1914 Schatsykou was a small village located on the Yellow Sea. Although its postal facility opened in February 1908, the canceller did not arrive until mid-1909. In the interim, mail was sent to Litsun for postmarking. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau-Grosses Hafen Postmark used from 21 February 1910 to September 1914 As a result of an increased need for a postal facility in the port area, a new office was opened in 1910 with cds reading "Tsingtau-Main Harbor." KIAUTSCHOU Taitungtschen Postmark used from 1 July 1911 to September 1914 The last post office to be opened in the colony was at Taitungtschen, at the southeast corner of Kiautschou Bay. It was in operation for only a little over three years before the Jaspanese occupation, so that mail with its postmark is relatively elusive. KIAUTSCHOU Shanghai-Tientsin Seepost 4 Raptes- Canregpanencan ’ : hee a Carte postale — Pas i ~ Sate Os Cartolina postal — Post card jsnise ey Levelogt-Lan — Br | Ss Mane Union postale universella — Welt eee. ss wh i: ns ee -s Sars ec % f = - Lies oS Kec cecece Ct Gece Zn GZ Chey, y we IEEE. LEASE 7” i Deut(cbe Reichapott Doftfarte — Postmark used from May 1901 to June 1914 Once German commercial interests became active in the colony, postal steamers serving the German community in China proper began to call at Tsingtau. Thus, the postmark of the Shanghai-Tientsin line is found on Kiautschou stamps. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau-Kiautschou Bahnpost DHeut(che Reidspoft Doftfarte Postmark used from 8 April 1901 to 23 January 1902 Tsingtau-Kaumi Bahnpost Wobnung (Gtrafe und Hausnu Postmark used from 24 January to 1 June 1902 MBL, During the construction of the Shantung Railway, postal service was inaugurated on the trains as each stretch was completed. The first TPO was opened on the route from Tsingtau to Kiautschou City in the spring of 1901. When the line was extended to Kaumi in the following year, a new postmark so indicating was introduced. KIAUTSCHOU Tsingtau-Weihsien Bahnpost Postmark used from 2 June 1902 to 1 November 1904 Tsingtau-Tsinanfu Bahnpost ‘Gouvernementsplatz mit Gouvernementsdienstgebaude Im Hintergrunde: Signafberg und Christuskirche Postmark used from 1 November 1904 to 13 September 1914 As the two final stages of the Shantung Railway were completed, appropriate new TPO postmarks were placed in service. The Tsinanfu version remained in use until the Japanese occupation at the beginning of World War I. KIAUTSCHOU Wartime Postal Card Despite heavy Japanese and British shelling of Tsingtau, which began on 29 October and continued until the surrender, life went on as normally as possible. Sometime after the Japanese attack, a new 4 cent postal card was issued. Michel records a usage on 2 November, and the latest usage recorded in the Neues Ganzsachen Katalog is 5 November. Cancelled cards are extremely scarce. Above example represents souvenir usage by Garrison Construction Assistant Eissner on the latest known date. KIAUTSCHOU Fieldpost QW. diNow Ne “Rooathe® Reasisi : ANG, S \\ Ue ostkarte ’ ie oes \ss AN | . Koop ae x = vee " ss Z Oy a as wes (ey MA Ad oS Teen EE n Adolf gee Tsingtan. Usage from August to November 1914 At the start of World War I, a State of Siege was declared in Kiautschou on 30 July 1914. Full mobilization was ordered on 2 August. Japan demanded surrender of the colony on 15 August and, receiving no reply, declared war on Germany on 23 August. Free franking was introduced for the German military forces on 1 August 1914, and such mail could be forwarded to addresses outside the colony in the early part of the campaign. Seem 8 KIAUTSCHOU Fieldpost \ 2 Seldpoftfarte. 3 a r Ss ey & S, Se RS ws Ne ah S¢ aim AS : os Bi ee gy _ Ss wo QAP ASEMA MME ~t ‘ 7 a 2 a aon — peta i ; Fellpesrkane : “2a Carte postale — Posty Johns. Geschke, Tsingtau V Ee ae aS fle Ae ted geod Hit Fine, Pay D ee B15¢ te Fe fe ‘fo ee 4 sae Pt edd 4, Ze as Tea qgaet Ses pen LY ye y ae a = a a a kee * MA ee t L Dee s iG At MB fF ang sTaat| Yay jor bord Deilic ot ates we Lact Loh, Fesepe Vi Le BH Jomo4e (tor Se San Bee Ae ey. ae, gael ee. Aes a j Han Don 9 a5 Ud : Y- Se ee te Cn zs ee Bek, 2 tw so eas os J : a ay Da pe Fe Fe fe ~~ ge ee ee ee ee Z Bowisvfouf, Hl Were Galt: WL Conf Ml Cupra che Usage from August to November 1914 On 30 August, German engineers blew up the major bridges between Kiautschou City and the leased territory. The Japanese invaded the latter on 16 September and gradually tightened their siege until Tsingtau surrendered on 7 November. Mail posted after mid-September could only be delivered locally or, with good luck, smuggled into China proper. KIAUTSCHOU Censored Mail I we 7} SE UQUISWLIaATION Herrn ® Ae Wi €@ M6 = cA \ ‘ Qi ¢ i te) * ; Poe e- S€ RA 6 PA... 2 Sel Deutsches Postamt rower Hoe cere aR SEP SS OE iia mse atti 8 sah Siow Se 1529.1914 ghee Lieber Kolles 4d -Jhren Kartengruse mit Dank ettalien: Sehr erfreut, ‘dass es Ihnen gut geht. Hier gibt es Umstellungen ' aller Art. Ich hoffe, dass Sie meine Karte erreicht, , dm she per Poot gehen soll. | woe Griisse ! oO = oD toed ve Mote Ainty St ae aus ae SG. te Wehe, baffo yeerk “Ge. Re es eaten ae ee = Usage from September to November 1914 Above post card was carried on the last sailboat to leave Tsangkou for Taputur. That route was closed on the following day (16 September) when the Japanese occupied Kiautschou City. Thereafter, such little mail as left the colony was smuggled by Chinese, sometimes in hollow bamboo poles. (¢-) - KIAUTSCHOU Inbound Returned Mail 8 : Wegen Kriegszustandef