The French in the Levant 1915 - 1944 (Text Content)

This web page, published by the Military Postal History Society, contains the text content of the single frame The French in the Levant 1915 - 1944 . This exhibit was created by, and is the property of the late Al Kugel, and is being supplied by his heirs as a courtesy to the Military Postal History Society.

Introduction Text

This exhibit examines the postal history of French activity in territories in the Eastern Mediterranean during the World Wars and the interwar period. In essence, it tells the story of the invasion, occupation and administration of areas that were part of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of World War I. It begins with the abortive attack on the Dardanelles in 1915 in an effort to take Constantinople. After the seizure of a couple of minor islands, the next important act was to send a military mission to Hedjaz to help foment an Arab uprising against the Turks. Later, in association with the British, Palestine and Syria were invaded, which eventually caused the Ottoman forces to collapse and drop out of the war.

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Updated 11/11/2022

Text Content of Exhibit


This exhibit examines the postal history of French activity in territories in the Eastern Mediterranean during the World Wars and the interwar period. In essence, it tells the story of the invasion, occupation and administration of areas that were part of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of World War I. It begins with the abortive attack on the Dardanelles in 1915 in an effort to take Constantinople. After the seizure of a couple of minor islands, the next important act was to send a military mission to Hedjaz to help foment an Arab uprising against the Turks. Later, in association with the British, Palestine and Syria were invaded, which eventually caused the Ottoman forces to collapse and drop out of the war.

The peace settlement required Turkey to give up all Ottoman territories populated by Arabs (and considered doing so with Armenians and Kurds). In the end, Hedjaz was annexed by Emir ibn Saud of Nejd (thus creating Saudi Arabia); Britain established mandates over Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq; and France got mandates over Lebanon and Syria. In this division of the spoils, the independent Arab government that had been established in the interior areas of Syria in 1919 was displaced by the French by force in the following year.

Naturally, all of this activity had considerable philatelic consequences. In addition to military mail during the fighting and garrison periods, civil postal services had to be developed for all of the various political entities that were created. This process was considerably complicated by the French policy of “divide and conquer" in which it gave varying amounts of autonomy to one tribe or sect after another to keep the groups from uniting in opposition to French rule.

An Arab Government for eastern Syria was established in Damascus in 1919, and Emir Feisal (formerly of Hedjaz) was crowned King on 8 March 1920. France believed that their mandate applied to all of Syria and sent troops against the Arab forces. Damascus fell on 25 July 1920, and Feisal fled the country. The above cover is franked with a stamp of the Arab government overprinted for the proclamation of the kingdom. Thus, it can be considered a forerunner of the French administration of Syria.

In general, the exhibit is presented chronologically in the order of the various territories that were invaded by the French. There is a clear imbalance of material from Syria and Lebanon, which reflects the long period of French administration until independence was granted in 1941. However, Free French forces remained active in the Levant until late in World War II in order to displace the Vichy officials.



Material in this exhibit will be shown chronologically by the beginning of each phase of operations:

Dardanelles Campaign -- 1915-1916
Occupation of Rouad -- 1915-1922
Occupation of Castellorizo -- 1915-1921
Military Mission in Hedjaz -- 1916-1918
Detachment in Palestine -- 1917-1920
Occupation of Syria -- 1918-1923
Occupation of Constantinople --1918-1921
Occupation of Cilicia -- 1919-1922
Occupation of Southern Anatolia -- 1921
Syria - Greater Lebanon -- 1923-1924
Lebanon Mandate -- 1924-1941
Syria Mandate -- 1924-1941
Alawite Territory -- 1925-1930
Djebel Druze -- 1925-1940
Latakia -- 1930-1936
Alexandretta -- 1938-1939
Free French Forces -- 1941-1944

CARTE POSTALE AGSRE FRag UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE /. pe. : hae of be CE. Initio inte Yactieo from Catde fe Jeans - Cairo — Be ee oe The Cairo ae Trust [4 [6 - ly pp ee ee ————)SOWNVI'TVALT FN OT ZOU 9 Marg prés te Gaire. Picture postcard of Cairo which was sent as a forerunner of the fieldpost mail from a member of the French Military Mission to Hedjaz during the period when the group was forming in Egypt. Entitled to be sent free of postage due to the use of a special cachet of the "French Military Base at Suez." DARDANELLES The first aggressive Allied thrust in Europe of World War I was an assault on the Turkish fortifications guarding the waterway from the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean. The ultimate goal was to capture Constantinople, divide Anatolia from European Turkey and open up a new warm water route for shipping war materiel to Russia. The initial landings on Gallipoli began on 25 April 1915. However, the operation was not a success and the forces were thus withdrawn on 9 January 1916. Tresor et Postes 194 27 May 1915 TURKEY IN EUROPE Gallipoli TURKEY IN ASIA a FRANCHISE WILITMRE Coes EXPEMITIONNA (Re, @. ORIEWT 7 The French participation in the Dardanelles Expeditionary Corps was modest relative to the British and Imperial (especially Anzac) forces. However, several different fieldpost offices were in operation to service the troops. This example was mailed from FPO 194 at Sedd-ul-Bahr. Registered mail from this campaign is very scarce. DARDANELLES Tresor et Postes 409 Fieldpost 16 July 1915 Tresor et Postes 506 13 November 1915 Jonas ve. Isa fa | ADAH (it =e e| J “2 ENAAE-GRECE 4s eo PC“ EMIZTOAIKON AEATAPION & oahu fa* jain. Je vou goon es lin Gr te! ie tine « Tine su TIVG« dire bacjoun wpeclints. Mm 92 i. JA ths aw bey A Neve ectone Fike Le Nowe smne EY SSERiC eee PUMe Ie Wirbive tin on \ ‘ CP lel Hie Usds, it Wee Yate Dvr ww 9d Loe ner CQL 0000.06 Bee Madar. de 5 ohana eo Jay Marly divine Wt in nim erni/ 3 ete LOT Se Hy ier ln A AY We ervis ig ed Op 4 Bi sleen id wie eh 09 We i ete rok “oe J Viele 09 WA SOW 3 ont | Hayattad Quest de owtilrnccadks 4%. hd... Ny Postcard datelined Sedd-ul-Bahr, site of one of the outer forts protecting the Dardanelles. Cover shows example of the large cachet of the "Dardanelles Expeditionary Force" posted to France. DARDANELLES Tresor et Postes 506 Fieldpost 31 December 1915 31 January 1916 z Bo our les soldats au dépdét du corps on = = = : 2 2 2u ” ey A ie a): ; > E Sg SAL: a —_— mee =e fee (a= : i a “ss me et : Ti sa) a, & a . i H : os ag <6 ao : : i as De a 2 De, | : ; a : 22 we 2 t t i By. GS sey! : 3 RS cae © iS & : aes : s «oS =a 2 a oO S2h @ 3s | am & O22 > ° 38 a a a eS ooce e 2 Soe Ome ea a 3° Co 2 2 A ao ag3 8 £8 e z ad ® 2 508 oO £2 rs 2 a5 > PSOwse SS ‘a ae ai eo © £5 a= och cs CAM UL ee s s S en ss & ® 8 a Bee 2 asa SS wb eS Z cs o 2. SOa mm mt These items mailed shortly before and after the ending of the Dardanelles campaign. Postage was free, but cover bears a 35 centime adhesive to pay the registration fee. Postcard has single-line cachet of the "Dardanelles Expeditionary Corps" but was actually mailed from the base at Mudros on Lemnos Island, to which many of the troops had been evacuated. The Greek stamp was not required but was affixed as a souvenir. ROUAD In 1915, the French navy occupied the small island of Rouad (today called Arwad) off the coast of Syria, south of the city of Tartous. In order to publicize this minor victory over the Ottomans, three French Levant stamps and a postal card were handstamped with "Ile Rouad" and placed on sale in 1916. The island was occupied until 1921 when it was attached to the French-controlled Alawite Territory, which was later incorporated into Syria. Tle Rouad 23 April 1916 31 March 1916 POSTE RANGA (CARTE POS BALE "EB pm CE cole est exe Tusivement. reserve DP adresse. Gs eat CORRESPONDANCE DES ARMEES DE LA REPUBLIQUE : Ve HSE | 2 enue 7 : = Cem Ca During the early part of the occupation, no new stamps were issued for Castellorizo but those of Greece and the French Levant could be used. Two different cachets were used to cancel postage, one with designation of the "3rd Squadron, First Naval Division" and the other without. These examples were backstamped in transit at Port Said on 16 February 1916 and at Rhodes on 8 January 1921, respectively. CASTELLORIZO Castellorizo/Corps d'Occupation Unofficial Overprints on French Levant September 1920 O.N.F. a rench Naval Occupation) Overprints Upper philatelic envelope vith French Levant stamps unofficially overprinted for the occupation. In Tuly 1920, officially overprinted stamps were issued for Castellorizo, with the wording of O.N.F. (Occupation Navale Francaise) and the name of the island. In addition to the issued denominations, an 8 piastres on 2 francs value was overprinted but never issued. CASTELLORIZO Castellorizo/Occupation Francaise O.F. (French Occupation) Overprints 22 August 1920 et. 2 Rae ie ee ee The final stamps for Castellorizo were overprints on French definitives, also in July 1920. The new wording consisted of OF (Occupation Francaise) and the name of the island. Six denominations were issued, including the | franc. Manuscript markings on these covers indicate that they were delivered by the gunboat Malicieuse to the addressee in Cilicia. HEDJAZ In an effort to support the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, France in 1916 sent a military mission consisting of 40 officers and about 1,000 men (mostly Muslim troops from North Africa) to Hedjaz on the western side of the Arabian Peninsula. This effort was successful in that the Turks were defeated at Aqaba and driven northward into Palestine and Syria. Tresor et Postes 601 6 June 1917 HEDJAZ EGYPT Above cover sent from Hedjaz to the French base in Port Said, Egypt by a member of the mission. Note that the authorizing cachet has the wording "Chief of the Mission." Only about a dozen cards and covers in total are recorded from this operation. HEDJAZ Tresor et Postes 601 Fieldpost 14 February 1918 27 February 1918 ss/ P pV. UNION POSTALE universpitid % oe EGYPTE i... CARTE POSTALE py, ie (ip hi | Z f y, Ag : Ephitimios Fréres, Port Said. (56070) Several different authorizing cachets were used on mail from members of the mission, including the upper one with "Chief of the Detachment" and the postcard from a medical officer. HEDJAZ Fieldpost Whe AB PPIPE cc ( Te PO Sei ee Oe cp f GY COU TLG | Lo iid. bois SR noes aniline ete a art Mecca June 1918 Tresor et Postes 601 25 September 1918 ajo see DRI BEALE EPR, Upper cover shows highly unusual usage through the civil post office in Mecca with straight-line "M.M.F. Hedjaz" cachet of the French Military Mission. July transit markings on reverse of Djedda and Port Said. Lower example shows second type of "Chief of the Mission" cachet with emblematic "France" in the center. HEDJAZ Tresor et Postes 601 Fieldpost 18 April 1918 peige Vie Boss eg Cee ea COL. ey ere go - Within pil Lee Be. WE “ofa “a T Li La? Cc fe : L, | ee. S KAM CLLE Tauce ane o > ? (Nour LOU | (eqre Louckvre Lg cle Dill cle Pahl Joins -08 (ALS al tAe A small group from the French mission was sent to Yambo, a minor port on the Red Sea. Upper cover from an artillery instructor shows previously unrecorded cachet. Lower cover shows obvious philatelic influence, being franked with unnecessary Hedjaz stamps and cancelled with old Ottoman postmark. However, it bears a special cachet of "Mission B" in Yambo. PALESTINE With its long-term interest in the Holy Land, dating back to the Crusades, France organized a 2,500 man "French Detachment in Palestine," which landed at Port Said in April 1917 to participate in the Allied expedition to be mounted from Egypt against the Ottoman Empire. The advance went well, culminating in the capture of ee on 17 December 1917. The war on the Palestinian front ended on 30 October 1918 with the surrender of Turkey. Tresor et Postes 601 20 November 1917 Although the unit cachet is inscribed "French Detachment in Palestine/Artillery," this card was postmarked at the base in Port Said as it is reported (BAPIP Bulletin) that FPO #601 did not move to Palestine until late 1918. PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601 Garnison Francaise de Jerusalem 25 January 1920 OETA Jerusalem 4 June 1920 SE AO Ae A “ip geVie 0 | G we Aq 4 /v « 4 ss JERUSALEM ; —— Van) No. 871 |: ht A Pie BT The French Detachment in Palestine was officially demobilized in January 1919 and FPO #601 moved to Aleppo and subsequently Beirut. The remaining forces in Palestine were constituted as the "French Garrison/Jerusalem." Note that the upper example was not postmarked until it reached the French FPO in Beirut six days later. PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 600 Detachement Francaise de Palestine-Syrie 3 July 1919 2 October 1920 25 November 1921 Beirut. § Bae i: bee i len. ie es 7 a 3 ae Eee t4 C t tr Ba _A- 383 Sarrafi ite hatin ee} ie Lhe _ SERVICE doPRABILLS' =?!” ot du GAMPEMEN’ | BeTALAENT PRANCAIS: BE ‘PALESTINE | GEYRIE : : és ‘ ¥ {™siinrseuaes™| oo | Metdesin “ae ale OF ha a S; si MW Coene dee Malin Ne fog Additional “Palestine-Syrie” cachets, including one from the telegraphic service and a straight-line version not previously recorded. PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601 Fieldpost 29 April 1918 ee 11 October 1918 temoin We Y cham. £74 WS Grabioy teteur Coy | Dn PPS | Tresor et Postes 601A CARTE PO oe 7 November 1918 kL UNIVERSAL Pop? je Com. ke... 28 Ail aig mh Neen ae Ry Whee hation. Ga) bee volumes, Sonar OY hte, =| e ee a a &, marlon mul Amr asd ae pee g SAMA worth oe . : : eG ee Berden,,. tir] Aen g of 'y, : » i : ADs oe ara, 2 GF Jnyantour | if wh y te me WHR noe tovide, Ce, Cle gore EL ne soa ft = au = ere gO me be Wnene ni mu If (1 (ae Jee YL view eno 1 a oe ea a tt aa dy es fe et Mteures re Comyeenuk de, mys ue or A tants ‘ LE CAIRE — A. { Toppa Lif ve ia ~ Cairo. Coutsicos Ly Lboemae _ retake: ome 60 (ha fox Fegrte post CA KR 800 varietic.,, You oe COBRESPONDSNOES pour oe Toyhentt ou cola ost admis. ae Ee (ee fred a Anieaky + baa . irut (Syri eos | Agee afiag Bross, Bei ee mS a - web. ot pole ee ke aes Steer . jf Complete set of 60 post cards comprising Business Life and costumes of Syria : a : fe oe é CP ' ~e gia, | 2 ed Other special unit markings used in Palestine. The cachet on the upper card is from the Ist Spahis of the Palestine Detachment; middle card is from the French Flying Corps supporting the infantry in Palestine. The lower card is endorsed "S.P. (Postal Sector) 601A but not postmarked; it was transported to France by military pouch. Unit marking is of "9th Battalion of 2nd Algerian Sharpshooters." PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601A Fieldpost ed ee 11 February 1918 ae EE er a 19 July 1918 6 November 1918 Df # . , ; Xe Gomes We =e a S| FG AME ff MAM Ma PP] | “ A te ‘geatlr >, Réservé exclusivement & l’adresse. ADMINIS"? d 31041NO9 S. i cei e 1¥- RH Baek an ss a “a ES a. ay 3 | i ef The volume of mail was sufficiently heavy that a branch office, FPO #601A, was opened at Jaffa to service the postal requirements of the Detachement Francaise de Palestine. Postcard has unrecorded marking of "Secteur 601A/D.F.P." and depicts a Jerusalem cross. Red cachet on middle cover reads "Ist Spahis/Squadron de Palestine." Marking on lower cover is "Occupied Enemy Territory/Central Administration/Courier Service." PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601A Fieldpost 2 June 1917 French Military Telegraph Station at Khan Yunis This Military Telegraph cds is the scarcest of the French military postmarks used in Palestine. The Telegraph Section was located at Khan Yunis near Gaza, and its postal unit consisted of 3 men, 4 camels and an automobile. This is the earliest reported example of its marking, and the Steichele handbook records only two other examples: dated 24 July and 4 October 1917. This cover front sent to France by a member of the "Section Telegraphique du Detachement Francaise de Palestine." \ \ \ \ PALESTINE Army Post Office SZ44 Fieldpost - EEF Franking 16 July 1918 5 September 1918 C mee p a ‘ oe e rs _ eT Ws Joes : A oe De ap see as Poyannf ¢ ‘ oS sth Fann AMAL OAD Internal Mail Between French Units y ; coe y 5 a“ J Cover from a sergeant in 4 el tLe the French Garrison in bo print a Jerusalem to a corporal 5 of the Detachment in a oye fe 2 Jaffa. Such inter-unit ji z2 mail is highly unusual. = fh? 2 4 wo os 2 PF ul TNILONSE OSTALE UNIVERSELLE CARTE DOC aT (Opin oe oe Osa te Card from the French High Commissioner in Palestine Postcard sent from Jerusalem i oe oe, OS Om ii Beak © (aE e to France. The only example of the High Commissioner's cachet seen by exhibitor. CAtew “ota CaF A YA ou 2. Lp ee m ae PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601-B Legion Armenienne 28 February 1918 12 March 1918 ernie ole Baie a Blanca et a Com 3 To augment their forces, the French recruited others to serve in a “Legion of the East." Most members were Armenians, who strongly desired to fight the Turks. A special postal branch called #601-B was opened at Monarga, then Lydda, to serve the Legion. Per the Sinais handbook, its postmark is the most elusive of all French FPOs that operated in the Levant. Postcard to Paris has sender's endorsement " Legion Armenienne." Cover to Egypt was routed through a British FPO and received in Cairo on 22 March. PALESTINE Port-Said Detachement Francaise de Palestine 7 May 1918 Cover sent by the Cooperative (PX) of the French Detachment in Palestine to Cairo. Sender's detail on reverse indicates that this unit was located at Ramleh. The French fieldpost did not have facilities to process registered mail at the time, so the letter was likely sent by military pouch to the civil post office in Port Said, where it was registered and the registry fee paid by affixing an Egyptian stamp. A most unusual usage. PALESTINE 8 April 1918 Corps Expeditionnaire de Palestine 10 November 1918 TURQUIE UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE CARTE POSTALE Correspondance Adresse ta ett adhe tour A dtes J * f Z AEF AG read , André Tera ————— oe A substantial number of different unit cachets were used by the French troops in Palestine, including those shown above of the Cavalry and Infantry. PALESTINE Tresor et Postes 601A Detachement Francaise de Palestine - Syrie 23 July 1918 Tresor et Postes 600 5 April 1919 ae ST C ARD Printed ee in The Addrese only ta be Britain = : = = 4 written hese Oo Se a J : y trate porgn fe peeerg.| Mg = ti gg & i A PLC AA re ae Te fi _~ if COP Ete 28 ph tee =e a = ath u Alée 7 | cota = : f Q t a i / ES at t L é This is 4 real Bb, Dip sr ght if | AA kebtencct , ok PPro 6 mae # / j JE*USALEM,— Prison de Jesus Christus. p Carfe postale CORRESPONDANCE pour les pays seulement ou cela est admis. ‘ypes comprising-over 800 varieties Sarrafian Bros,, Beirut (Syria). +) post free, prising Business Life and costumes of Syria and Complete set of 60 post cards com; Palestine 5/-, poat free. Oriental views and T: at 1d. each, post free. Catalogue 2 a. As the French forces spread northward into Syria and Lebanon, the nomenclature used in the unit cachets changed to include references to Syria. Examples shown here are from the Provost and Automobile Service. All such markings should be considered very elusive. SYRIA In the initial phase of the occupation, the French focused on Lebanon, where naval forces were landed and Beirut secured on 7 October 1918, but they were soon vying for influence with the British and an independent Arab government that was set up in Damascus. During 1919 and the first half of 1920, French forces were occupying the coastal areas along the eastern Mediterranean and north of Palestine, which consisted of Lebanon, the Alawite Territory and Alexandretta. The first postage stamps used in this territory were those issued by the British E.E.F. (Egyptian Expeditionary Forces), which remained in use until the French produced their own issues in late 1919. Tresor et Postes 600 12 May 1919 ALEXANDRETTA ALAWITE g TERRITORY H s £ & x a os) s LEBANON Cover sent from FPO 600 in Beirut to France. It was franked with a | piastre E.E.F. adhesive even though it bore the cachet of the "French Troops in the Levant/Officers Quarters." Received in La Basse-Indra on 29 May 1919. SYRIA Tripoli-Syrie E.E.F. Franking 23 June 1919 See met Djon (Liban) Tripoli-Syrie ~ WI. & N. NAHAS ~ Tripoli-Syrie 10 April 1919 PIRI S* PRD POP IO PRL AE API Ia WP ANI of AP? Zp ZG eS Sheps 7, j ei a af Sie AY aA hal t Vs 8 Commercial covers mailed from French-occupied territory (now Lebanon), franked with E.E.F. stamps and cancelled with old Ottoman postmarks. Oval French censorship markings in black and violet, respectively, read "Passed by the/Censor/O.E.T.A. (Occupied Enemy Territory Administration) West." Sent to Belgium and Mexico -- most unusual destinations. SYRIA Tresor et Postes 600 Official Mail 26 August 1919 Beyrouth 1 December 1919 17 October 1921 _ _ CORRESPONDANCE _ - pour les pays seniement on cela est admis. — : geet Savraiian Wros., Beirut (Syria), ‘ing Business Lite and costumes of Syria and nd ‘Types comprising over 800 varietioe, ‘poat free. Official mail could be sent free of postage through the French fieldpost stations. Above covers sent from Beirut by the "High Commission of the French Republic in Syria and Armenia," "High Commission of the French Republic in Syria" and "Network Commission in Syria - Cilicia." SYRIA Tresor et Postes 601 Legion Armenienne 3 April 1919 In 1919, FPO 601 moved to the Headquarters of the French Army in Beirut. Some Armenians were recruited to help quell disturbances by Arabs and a few remaining Turks in the occupied territory. Above cover sent by a Sergeant in the “Armenian Legion" to Paris. This is the only recorded cover from this small detachment serving in the Levant. SYRIA Tresor et Postes 600 Cavalerie Auxiliare Syrienne 27 January 1920 29 May 1920 To augment their own forces, the French recruited local troops from Lebanon and the coastal areas of Syria The above examples show two different unit cachets of the "Syrian Auxiliary Cavalry" and were sent by French officers in those units back to the home country. SYRIA Legion Syrienne Tresor et Postes 600 ler Escadron Libanais 9 June 1921 25 September 1921 oot 5 lt a oe - : ee: £ : x ae 7 eg CA eay CY CUM ~ £ sedans | caves, eo — tO ee pO eta os Sp pS eR Te saree With the term "Syria" applying to the entire area under French administration, there was also a Lebanese unit within the Syrian Legion, known as the "Ist Lebanese Squadron." Examples above show outbound and inbound letters involving this group. SYRIA T.E.O. Franking ALEXAMORETTE 40. 20° ? i. os 7 > Ky OCLZL ES SEAL p | fs € f Alexandrette 12 February 1920 Beyrouth 17 February 1920 The first French stamps specifically for the occupied territory were issued on 21 November 1919 and consisted of French Levant issues overprinted "T.E.O. (Occupied Enemy Territory)" and surcharged with the appropriate denominations. Upper example paid the 2 piastre rate for an international registered letter sent from Alexandretta to New York City. Lower cover with four color franking from Beirut to Ohio. seit ice SYRIA Broumana (Liban) O.M.F. Franking 5 December 1919 | = sancemnecesecomen ¥ sisi oa SS = Alexandrette i 3 September 1920 on SLE YC UC C_> CG The first stamps to specifically identify "Syria" were French definitives overprinted "O.M.F. (French Military Occupation)/Syrie" and surcharged with new denominations. The catalogues all indicate that the stamps were issued in 1920 (although the upper cover from Broumana clearly shows a December 1919 date). These stamps were initially used in all of the French-occupied coastal areas of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon, the Alawite Territory, Alexandretta and even Cilicia. SYRIA Beyrouth Official Mail 17 September 1920 Palmyre Marking | Tresor et Postes 610 eS eee SE ' 24 January 1925 HAUT COMMISSARIAT DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANGAISE EN ¥ SYRIE ET AU LIBAN | — ‘gf Upper cover contained an official letter from the High Commission of the French Republic in Syria and Lebanon, located in Beirut. However, postage was required because it was sent to a foreign country. Cover below sent from Palmyra, the site of the most well-preserved Crusader castle in the Levant, by a member of the 1 Company of the Camel Corps. There was no post office at the castle, so a special origination mark inscribed “Palmyre” was applied. A military postmark was then applied at Damascus. SYRIA Alie (Liban) O.M.F. Franking 8 December 1921 Djadj (Djebeil) 1 March 1921 Saidnail (Bekaa) 19 January 1922 Wrenn sei The "O.M.F. Syrie" overprints continued to be used throughout Lebanon until superseded by the "Syrie - Grand Liban" overprints in 1923. Examples above used from small villages to most unusual destinations in Missouri, Pennsylvania and Saskatchewan, SYRIA Beyrouth O. M. F. Franking 11 July 1921 Halep 10 February 1923 the These examples of O.M.F. overprints are used on registered mail from Beirut (Lebanon) to London and from Aleppo (Syria) to Istanbul, Turkey. SYRIA O.M.F. Franking In addition to the use of overprinted Arab Government stamps, various issues of French stamps with the same Overprint were now available for use in the interior provinces of as the coastal areas. Syria, including Aleppo and Damascus, as well _ Halep (Souk i!-Habil) 1 February 1922 Damas 25 February 1923 (er rere ; ‘ 2eo 7h | Registered covers with O.M.F. overprints on French stamps mailed from Aleppo and Damascus in the former Kingdom of Syria to Turkey and Switzerland, respectively. SYRIA Overprints on Arab Government Stamps Notwithstanding the British promises to support an Arab government in the interior parts of Syria and the subsequent inauguration of Emir Feisal as King, the French fully intended to exert their control over the entire country. In the summer of 1920, they were ready and their troops advanced from the coastal area, defeating the Arab forces at Maysalun and entering Damascus on 25 July. King Feisal fled from the country (but subsequently, under British protection, was named King of Iraq). In 1921, the remaining stocks of Arab Government stamps were overprinted "O.M.F. Syrie," surcharged with new values and placed in service. Damas 28 October 1921 7 September 1921 Picture postcard and registered letter mailed from Damascus to New Hampshire and Galata (Turkey), respectively, during the period that the overprints on Arab Government stamps were used. SYRIA Halep O. M. F. Franking 9 March 1921 Currency Depreciation Issue Even after the withdrawal of the EEF in favor of the French, Egyptian piasters continued to circulate in the Vilayet of Aleppo, while old Turkish currency remained in use elsewhere in Syria. Because the latter had depreciated in value, O.M.F. stamps sold in Aleppo were overprinted with a square control mark in black or red in December 1920. This was intended to prevent currency arbitrage with adhesives purchased more cheaply elsewhere being used in Aleppo. This cover was franked with a surcharged | piaster stamp with red control mark, thus paying the international letter rate to England. It is the only example of such franking seen by exhibitor. SYRIA O.M.F. Airmail Franking 26 vay Hon Ul. & Fr. APSAANGFAOGY AAEZANAPETTA P. & G ARSLANOGLOU » ALEXANDRETTE ee \ Alexandrette 5 October 1921 In order to expedite military communications, the French created an airmail service between Aleppo and Alexandretta in late 1920. A limited quantity of 3,500 sets of three O.M.F. overprints (see lower cover) were additionally marked with a square box inscribed "Poste par Avion" and placed on sale on 1 December 1920. When these ran out, a second set was similarly overprinted and 1,500 sets issued on 12 June 1921 (upper cover). SYRIA O.M.F. Airmail Franking 10 gana Beyrouth 25 July 1922 a RECOMMAR The airmail service was popular, requiring more sets. On 5 October 1921, three values of O.M.F. stamps were overprinted "Avion" reading down, and 5,500 sets were issued. In 1922, a new set of four values (a 2 piastre denomination being added) was overprinted "Poste par Avion" across the top, and 10,000 sets were issued. SYRIA O.M.F. Franking on Parcel Card COUPON Bcranen’ Yimbre du burcau Worigine deol) Nom et domicile de Veapéditeur | L Nombr xcs ae mb? larations en douane-#€4 Taxe percue Prsfhasi aS O WS 4 x fe PIE Sea oe Wovens 5 Ny li one sup, GEDEON - BEYROUTH Halep 10 March 1923 byw COlzT A.P.T.3T.E.0.,48 Administration des Postes ef Télégraphes des Territoires Ennemis Oecupés, Beyrouth Numéro du colis > hH 3,2 BO ) rian Padrecie ci-dessous elio| qe sil oleh ab Veber ee remplir pour les valeurs déclarées ‘ Valeur assarée \yie eo gl Lad FCS : L chy : Nom = etadressedu (db litlan. \ , A fs c Gee ies bhe= ~~ DAMAS Cites MILITAIRE % 4, : Ge Cee : Ly By Z a pod Lhasse Wiesbaden % ip) Wr ef loaf ke: Postcard and registered cover from FPO #610 at Damascus. The latter was sent to Mainz in the French-occupied Rhineland area of Germany and then forwarded to Wiesbaden. SYRIA Tresor et Postes 614 Military Mail 27 August 1924 = : = ee Tresor et Postes 615 4 = Annrartrrs prey eee 4 November 1921 se 61S [3 ee ] Tresor et Postes 615-C 24 July 1920 Anurd« uy Ae ok 141 Que. Te caulk AAA f f f) ‘ . And 0 LAD UO Meh ok Amey, r= Hevlltte, Jeurts eS f f Ft eb lout wro. pel A ") f Ad 0 = Hs 6 MO nthe Cn HUN \ MALY ULTITYBog *¢ 12 “Yry sine} ~~ a { And. - HOLA C4 J ue ARMIEE FIRANCAISE DU LEVANT = | (Ve | REUNION DES OFFICIERS ~*~. 9 Sry : t i | a ad ee 1 ALEP ie a Fieldpost stations were opened in other administrative centers, including #614 on 1 April 1924 at Alexandretta, #615 on | February 1920 (at Aleppo on date shown), and #615C in May 1920 at Ourfa. SYRIA Base Naval Beyrouth Naval Mail 23 January 1920 Division Naval de Syrie April 1922 —— ors > aa ae ae : thalladjian. FARA Joppe- a As Beirut was the primary port in Syria at that time, it became the principal base for French naval forces in the Levant. CONSTANTINOPLE Following the Turkish surrender and the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, an occupation force of Allied troops headed by General d'Esperey landed in Constantinople on 22 November. Included were contingents of British, French, Greeks and Italians. There was even an American presence through a naval squadron. Tresor et Postes *_* 8 February 1919 »~GARTE-PROSTALE bere ey 9G it AbMettt Erne, Zo. 2 Ze oy ES EG Be af, Es AG. Ale aca er Li Lon 9 Ly |9 oD a L f- ee pobre cool =NRY’S POST CARD. JERSE TRS. ee al lg FE ee . POSTKAR * J Ng ai A ; ee 8 a9 - . ae h 4 ; Lf i * , CONSTANTINOPLE! y YOU oe (For Address\@inly.) ig “ ‘Sérailpoint i ise. f oe Peseta serail ats lover dix Gi pew a hee fr SGKSV 44. AUK Cad Yeamtterlihe tf, Lis Wa 4. aed. ALL ed eo e On | April 1919, a second overprint was employed to create new stamps. This time the wording “Cilicie" was in cursive. Examples shown here used on cover from Mersine to Italy (in mixed franking of the two overprints) and on a postal card from Tarsous to Mersine (with an additional T.E.O. adhesive). CILICIA . Adana T.E.O. Overprints 10 February 1920 Vue d’ Alexandrette prise de la montagne. aw Ansicht von Alexandrette. “A Peeeeee20009 Cao. Co doag ‘geo o & e ° ® @ ® 2. Sob ob seoe @62¢20 Md o e a e ® e 6 e = e eo es Se » e s oe s A third overprint reading "T.E.O. (Occupied Enemy Territory)/Cilicie" was issued on 23 May 1919. Examples shown here used on a picture postcard from Adana to Ecuador and a parcel address card with old all-Arabic Ottoman cancel of Adana. Tarsous 18 July 1919 CILICIA Mixed Franking Qa oD few = oy ES&S me So a8 ue Set Oo cad oO < = oN ee ous Bek ce 2 BSR8s EgEES BoB La 0 Es Oo 58 4“sa ob 23 g : SE: & Ya toa o.4 ° 2 =o am OB Bog : B&F seo unusual smail oval censor marking inscribed Tarsus. CILICIA Tresor et Postes 606 Mixed Franking 26 January 1920 Adana 27 January 1920 There: TERRITOIRES ENNEMIS OCCUR ZowEe mor w i WADMINISTRATEUR. » EN CHEF CABINET ML PAIR E : PNLVULU GULSUSLEUL 4 Thomas Bagdadliaa ae 3 LURUMVGUG PUP QU4 * Marchant - ‘lailleur o Mh. 60 ee. Be P. Go es sd eae Adana Cilicie = es - 3 NO : The T.E.O. (Occupied Enemy Territory) overprints listed under Syria were also used in Cilicia during the French occupation. Shown here in mixed franking with "Cilicia" overprints to the War Ministry in Paris and Egypt. CILICIA Adana | Legion Armenian 6 August 1919 | The Armenians were willing recruits to serve the French in Cilicia as well as in Palestine and Syria. Above registered cover was sent to Boston a member of the Legion and franked with T.E.O. overprints. A highly unusual usage. CILICIA Overprints on Revenues After a brief interlude during which the British occupied Cilicia from October 1919 to J anuary 1920, the French returned and remained in charge of the territory from February 1920 until they returned the area to Turkey at the end of November 1921. Adana . i 10 April 1920 Tarsous 24 March 1920 The first stamps issued during the second French period were Turkish revenue stamps overprinted "Occupation Militaire Francaise/Cilicia.". These were issued in early 1920 and only used for a brief time, sometimes in conjunction with EEF stamps, as on the upper cover from the Armenian Union in Yozgat, Adana to Boston. CILICIA Adana O.M.F. Overprints 26 June 1920 March 1921 The final issue for Cilicia, also in 1920, consisted of French definitives overprinted "O.M.F. (French Military Occupation)/Cilicie" and surcharged with new denominations in piastres and paras. Above examples used to the United States. Tarsous 30 November 1920 CILICIA O.M.F. Overprints Mersine 13 December 1920 ee These covers were 1on. he second French occupat ps used during t ie stam ilici ae ion F inat M Additional examples of the O sent to Cyprus, an unusual dest CILICIA O.M.F. Overprints No 22 La féte anniversaire _ de ’Armistice Ture en date © du 31 Oct. 1918, au Jardin ~ Municipal MERSINE - Gam Mersine 22 January 1921 Tarsous 30 November 1921 Picture postcard of Allied officers and local dignitaries celebrating the anniversary of the Turkish surrender and registered, return receipt requested cover from Tarsous to Adana. Note use of old Turkish registration and return receipt handstamps, the latter being the only example seen by exhibitor. CILICIA Tresor et Postes 606 Official Mail 18 June 1920 Tresor et Postes 608 - CONTROLE ADMINISTRATIF 25 January 1921 de Gilicie ~ 2 ee Ant Hy la dumm A Foyers de Cilieie - Base de ee -Attiea du hevant Shi da, Cilla 2 eau Rasen Noda Sein tion. Covers sent from administrative units to France from FPOs #606 and #608, both located at Mersine at the time. CILICIA Mersine Official Mail December 1920 -ETAaptissEMENTS Ornospi-Back SOCIETE ANONYME : : Capital: 20,000,000 de Frances > Réserve: 18,000,000 de Francs SIEGE. SOCIAL A PARIS 126, Rue Lafayette Xe” * , - The postage on the above cover is cancelled with a special marking inscribed "Interallied Control in Turkey/Coastal Trade." Sent to Constantinople where it was backstamped for receipt on 10 December 1920. CILICIA Adana Post-Transfer Official Mail 25 August 1923 A "French Mission in Cilicia" was maintained in Adana to supervise the return of the territory to Turkey and complete administrative details left over from the French occupation. Above cover sent from a member of the mission to a French functionary in Scutari, Albania. An extraordinary destination. SOUTHERN ANATOLIA There were two special cases of provisional issues for cities that were regarded then as being in Syria but today are in the southern part. of Asiatic Turkey. The first was a single stamp issued in Kilis in February 1921. The second was a set oi overprinted Turkish stamps used in Aintab in July 1921. Kilis February 1921 Kilis was considered to be a part of Syria following World War I. In 1921, a large influx of Armenian refugees crossed the border to escape Turkish persecution. When their needs depleted the stamp supply, a provisional was created with a handstamp reading (in Arabic) "Kilis Posta Pulu." Although these had no stated denomination, they were sold for 1 piastre each. Commercial use of these stamps is highly elusive; the above example is backstamped in transit in Aleppo on 18 February and for receipt in Galata on 1 March 1921. (Note that in a border adjustment, Kilis was returned to Turkey in 1923.) SOUTHERN ANATOLIA Aintab Aintab Provisional Issue 23 July 1921 13 August 1921 a Ay 29 a o \ ~~ ‘ ee ¥ & a ae (ee) 9 RES a —p . 2 ae CEL. oC. 3 i A Pas df f Zo. aS ~ 7 AE fp dete ~ Dee be BA Sa , hd pgp gp. Gf 7 There was a significant uprising in the town of Aintab (today called Gaziantep in Turkey) in 1921. French troops were called in and took control after dispersing the rebels. Stamps were not available, so a small quantity of Turkish definitives were overprinted "O.M.F./Syrie" in black or red during July 1921, with a new value of 1 or 2 piastres being added. This issue was only valid until 27 August 1921, so that covers are very elusive. SYRIA - GREATER LEBANON Although the stamps with the "O.M.F. Syrie" overprints were used throughout both Syria and Lebanon, in 1923 the French authorities decided to include both names in the inscription. At the same time, the "O.M.F." was dropped to recognize that the area was now under French mandate. no longer military occupation. Stamps with the new inscription were issued in October 1923. Damas 9 October 1923 x4 *. Greater é « Lebanon = jhe aie oz s a “ee we gue ALLA- WARD . ——DAMAS, SYRIE . Registered cover sent from Damascus to Missouri. It was franked with four of the new "Syrie - Grand Liban" overprints and one of the old "Syrie" versions. Note the use of a new French- Arabic pasunans | for Damascus. SYRIA - GREATER LEBANON Airmail Overprints pinele as a ae In addition to the "Syrie - Grand Liban" overprints for ordinary mail, 2,130 sets of four airmails were issued on 23 November 1923. Because of a subsequent political decision, these Stamps were taken off sale less than two months later, so they are usually seen on non-flown locally-adressed covers as shown above. SYRIA - GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth/Place des Camouns Official Mail 3 March 1923 This cover shows official usage from the Post & Telegraph Service of the French High Commission in Syria and Lebanon to the Postmaster in Munich, Germany. A very unusual usage. SYRIA - GREATER LEBANON D Mixed Franking 10 January Tod This cover shows mixed franking of the "Syrie - Grand Liban" overprints with a stamp of the subsequent set for Syria proper. Sent from the Italian General Consulate in Damascus to Florence. GREATER LEBANON In January 1924, the French authorities decided to separate the Lebanese and Syrian mandates. Stamps issued for the former were initially inscribed "Grand Liban (Greater Lebanon)." This was because the French had expanded the original Ottoman sandjak (district) located between Beirut and Mount Lebanon, and largely populated by Maronite Christians, to include the Muslim districts of Sidon, Tripoli and the Bekaa Valley. (They were careful to preserve a Christian majority in the country at the time -- although this was subsequently overcome by a higher Muslim birthrate and greater Christian emigration.) Beyrouth 13 October 1924 GREATER LEBANON Sandjak of Lebanon AHMED MOUKTAR & ABDALLAH BEYHUM _ BEYROUTH (SYRIE) sa “1H t & af ty, \ pe. Se. \ oO awe ey z z woh x YW } ce a) ye oe Se - UNGARISCHE METALLWAAREN oe A a See UND LAMBENFABRIKS A,G, BUDAPEST, 10 SEE RTS Se Same Amn eee a em ore oem ee ce ee Postafiok, 20 E ‘ * : ae oS : : : . : : A The new overprints inscribed "Grand Liban" on French definitives were issued on 21 January 1924. This cover from Beirut to Hungary is franked with a pair of the overprints. Note the use of a new French-Arabic postmark for Beirut. GREATER LEBANON Rayak First Airmail Overprints 2 October 1924 oe > FS FREPVBLIQVE:FRANEAISE' “a Fe REPVBLIOVE FRANCAISE TA Lips ih fae Mee : C u ay Wun ae EER Ate ie ~O-4 0-24 . Se ee, A set of four overprinted airmails inscribed "Grand Liban" was also issued on 21 January 1924. The above cover was sent from Rayak to FPO #610 in Damascus, where it was turned over to the civil post office the same day. GREATER LEBANON ; Beyrouth First Overprints 17 July 1924 ee Tripoli de Syrie 8 January 1925 Registered commercial covers franked with "Grand Liban" overprints and sent from Beirut to Aleppo and from the Tripoli Boy's School to the American Mission in Beirut. GREATER LEBANON Postes aux Armees 606 Second Airmail Overprints 29 January 1925 An additional supply of airmail stamps was soon required, thus a new issue came forth on 10 July 1924. In this case. the word "Avion" was printed to the right of the stamp, reading down. Above examples used on a military formula card from FPO #606 in Beirut to FPO #610 in Damascus, where it was received on the same day. GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth Paris Olympic Commemoratives 14 March 1925 19 March 1925 Monsieur Simon Jolyou Monsieur Alfred Selim re 5 | Poste Restante om Alep - Syrie Sets of the French stamps commemorating the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris were overprinted for use in Lebanon. There were two printings: the first had “GRAND LIBAN” in capital letters; The second had “Gd Liban” in upper and lower case letters in French and added the country name in Arabic. GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth Third Airmail Overprints 18 July 1925 ~ BYON. (Rhone) | seems Se ae Pak Re BD AO Dat oll Ps The new Grand Liban pictorials were also overprinted with "Avion" in green and issued on 1 March 1925. Examples shown on a registered airmail cover to France. GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth Pictorial Definitives 21 November 1925 8 July 1926 Examples of the "Grand Liban" pictorials used on postcard and registered letter to unusual destinations of Singapore and Teheran, Persia, respectively. GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth Pictorial Definitives 9 February 1926 Surcharged Pictorials 13 December 1926 - Ae ee ISSA « SCHOUCAIR As ze BEYROUTH sy ‘ (Syrie} ~ RECOMMANDEE : | | ZOSSEN HLM & PARZNERS. LEEDS ( ENGLAND ) WAN %, Pwr. lo. Corr, ™m ON Gra N BAALBLQ + oe VQ On | March 1925 an extensive set of pictorials inscribed "Grand Liban" was issued. These were in use a relatively short time for a definitive series because of a decision to replace them with stamps inscribed "Republique Libanaise” in 1927. However, because of changes in postal rates, some of the lowest denominations of the pictorials were surcharged with new values and issued on 26 August 1926. LEBANON Republic Pictorials UNITED MISSIONARY SOCIETY ¢ Rue Nahr, Beit Selim Sfeir / BEIRUT, Syria —~— ; [ap ees Biskinta 17 July 1934 Beyrouth 30 August 1937 GHOTES DARE Examples of "Republique Libanaise" pictorials used on cover to Ontario and on a registered cover to Celje, Jugoslavia. LEBANON Daroun Harissa Republic Pictorials 28 May 1935 ako Lian ae G his An extensive set of pictorial stamps inscribed "Republique Libanaise" was issued in May 1930. Examples above used ona registered cover to Sweden. LEBANON Beyrouth Second Airmail Overprints 29 July 1929 OUTH RE eres 9 a ae SS ee a — BEYROUTH = MARSEILLE “Monsieur Jean PATURAL ‘Rue Vuillermoz Balland OYONNAX (Ain) France fom tone nee ike AS AD Seo SE HG Pa SO. Sd: Sen Ew Gt, sem oon cee ein v¢ AAA AAAS QA 02. 0240752-3712237 04 - = Se I cee ees aee A similar set of airmails was issued on 4 May 1928 showing the “Republique Libanaise" overprint in both French and Arabic. Used on cover to Paris where it was received on 3 August. LEBANON Beyrouth First Airmail Overprints 19 October 1927 a Crane The first set of airmails following the name change was a set of four Grand Liban airmails overprinted “Republique Libanaise" issued on 1 July 1927. Used on cover sent to Paris by Air Union seaplane. LEBANON As of 23 May 1926, the name "Greater Lebanon" was dropped and became simply "Lebanon," because the former designation irritated the Syrians, who understood that some of their territory had been taken merely to provide a more viable Lebanon. No adjustment in the borders was made, and the situation then continued unchanged until Lebanon was granted independence on 26 November 1941. = Baalbeck : 26 July 1930 SERIE B BAALBEK - 2 = Choueir a 3 January 1930 2 s alate Fo J Se = 2 So eee 2 C/ 3 : 4 & OP aetin G Ar ae Be A at hoh £ 7 z = 1 Ls PA, tred ve z = |) of ! = ao! FE ee 2 A£Ad itd Aoraga- ttefARE = iff 4 Z e : = 2 la te ort a ae 8 tees coe AMERICAN MISSION HIGH SCHOOL = Stl CZ. a SCHWEIR, LEBANON ie aJls\ du yall On 1 July 1927, new overprints inscribed "Republique Libanaise" on Grand Liban pictorials were issued. LEBANON Saida Liban Official Mail 7 December 1934 Beyrouth 24 February 1937 ri , / f -COMMISS AT BETO SARI ee. Uy : ax DE PA REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE co EN SYRIE ET AU LIBAN : i echkoff eC ic Bataillen Pec! | ai ioe - tratif au Liban 8¥e Conseilier administra’ aa i € A go (A Ae = HAUT - COMMISSARIAT DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE EN SYRIE ET AU LIBAN mo fet Monsieur . Secrétaire Général -\b REL, de la revue “Les Stations Frangaises" 4 OY Na, : . : /s a oS %', : = —s oe yey ax a 44 rue de Bellechasse oa OFF ort ae L 4 | oe os 4 ee ~ ou? : f = ‘ : UR se jh) PARI 8s (yiT 5 ey - Ww > SS _ ve Perms worn Official covers from the High Commission of the French Republic in Syria and Lebanon. Upper envelope endorsed "F.M. (Franchise Militaire) and sent free, but lower example paid 4 piastres. LEBANON Beyrouth 10th Anniversary of Airmail 19 July 1938 Be Mr. Henri THiaude ee as : oe : 24 Rue de Quatre sept eo = xe ANNERS. ey et es See - ee FARIC 2 FRANCE On 15 July 1938, a single airmail stamp was issued commemorating the 10th anniversary of the first direct airmail service between France and Lebanon by pilot Maurice Nogues. Cover received in Paris three days later. GREATER LEBANON Beyrouth Fourth Airmail Overprints 17 August 1934 ie Rayak 25 May 1927 The final Grand Liban airmails were overprinted with red airplanes and issued on 1 May 1926. One version had a further overprint "Secours aux Refugies" for which an additional 25 paras per stamp was collected for refugee relief for victims of the Druze uprising. Beyrouth Canons 15 July 1938 10th Anniversary of Airmail LEBANON ee oa Premiere liaison-aéroposta tale France-Liban 1&6 A VGgn fe Ee année eS NSEILLES pee ee ‘ ~ mineiae sev é _-‘MARSEILLE-HEYROUTH xrannés DAA The Maurice Nogues stamps was also issued in a souvenir sheet of four. Shown here on first day cover. LEBANON _ | Beyrouth Second Republic Pictorials 3 December 1938 18 November 1940 Piss 2 4 Se “ i, Ganville Place; THERE NAHR-EL-KFLB PAR AVION JUSQU'A DES ce % 2 Yen PUBLIQUE LIBANFISE LEBANON Al Ain Surcharges on Pictorials 23 March 1939 a pps Beyrouth 1 March 1943 A OU fe A € AMarg¢es = Portaggese Last AE = o a C —FS7 7 lL pe aig 3 <* § NEW PROCESS METALS CORP., oy 50 Center Street, — a \ ae NEWARK, : Se j ) NEW JERSEY, «. ‘ ~ Ue Sp Be = ‘PAYSAGE UIBANAIS PEDAL OLE LOAD. Near the end of the French period in Lebanon, changes in postal rates required the surcharging of current definitives with new denominations. Examples shown are two versions of the 7.50 piastres increased to 12.50 piastres issued in 1938 and 1939. The upper cover was sent from the village of Al Ain to Mozambique, a most unusual destination. Backstamped for receipt in Lourenco Marques on 8 April 1939. LEBANON Beyrouth 20 January 1942 Free French Censorship Ai, i a ee Se ee ee ‘w ie emg - _ Chicas es S. Ae During the war, Trans-Atlantic airmail rates rose sharply as routing was indirect. This cover from Beirut to Chicago was franked with high values paying 185 piastres of postage. Censored by the Free French in Lebanon, it traveled via Trinidad, where it was intercepted and examined by the British censorship. LEBANON Military Mail Poste aux Armees 600 13 April 1934 30 June 1937 TROUPES DU LEVANT Mes JEHL PIAITRE TATLLEUR S. Be Goo —— = Politically, Lebanon was quiet by the late 1920s, with few troops stationed there and military mail not often seen. However, examples can be found, as above from FPO #600 in Beirut. However, postage had to be paid as the military franchise no longer applied. SYRIA II When the administration of Syria and Lebanon was separated in January 1924, stamps inscribed "Syria" were again issued for use in that portion of the Levant without other postal arrangements, i.e. not in Lebanon and shortly not in the Alawite Territory. This new status continued until Syria was granted independence on 27 September 1941. Alexandrette 23 July 1924 Toledo Stamps Company, 1g Commerce Guardian Buildings, #5 fOPERDO, OHIO . Gr 8, As The new overprints reading "Syrie" in capital letters were introduced on 13 January 1924, shortly before the equivalent stamps for Lebanon, both replacing the former "Syrie - Grand Liban" issues. Examples shown frank a registered letter (containing stamps?) from Alexandretta to Ohio. SYRIA II Damas First Airmail Overprints 13 February 1924 As with the other French-controlled territories, airmail overprints were also provided. These were also issued on 13 January 1924. This cover was flown by military aircraft from Damascus to Soueida in the Djebel Druze, where it was backstamped for receipt on 15 February. Very little mail is ever seen to or from the Druze territory. SYRIA II Hamas Second Overprints 9 March 1925 Damas 13 March 1925 OHANNES BOYADJIAN MARCHAND DE TIMBRES POSTE DAMAS, Syrie = i a = = Ye Ws at \ Ve cH , S ay imp. Cozma Freres ~Bamas & Geyrouth, y\\ it nS oo ee In a second version of the overprint, "Syrie" was printed in upper and lower case letters instead of all capitals. This series was issued on 17 March 1924. Examples shown used from the representative of the French sub- delegation for the Sandjak of Hama to Paris and from Damascus to Egypt. SYRIA II Rakka Second Airmail Overprints 15 March 1925 Kl Airmails also appeared in the second version of the overprint with "Syrie" in upper and lower case letters and "Avion" reading down along the right side. Issued on 17 July 1924 and used here on a flown cover to FPO #606 in Rayak, where it was received the same day. SYRIA II Damas Paris Olympic Commemoratives 20 April 1925 Sets of the French stamps commemorating the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris were overprinted for use in Syria. Demand for these stamps on cover was stronger than anticipated due to heavy interest by collectors of Olympic topicals. As a result, some dealers “created” additional covers but were not careful about the dates used in the postmarks. For example, in the example above the cover is shown as arriving in Beirut before it was mailed in Damascus. SYRIA II Pictorial Definitives Damas 10 January 1926 Alexandretta 24 February 1926 On 1 March 1925 an extensive set of pictorials inscribed "Syrie" was issued. Examples shown used on a return receipt for a registered letter from Damascus and a cover from Alexandretta to Aleppo. SYRIA II Hassitche Pictorial Definitives 13 December 1935 Rihanie 21 February 1938 a ee : sd ona peek ss . % C3 Cok Hurd Orr . =. ACen SAM Ciuars He es Ty { ca tal Th <2 manera hp es NOP OPEL : i 33 Additional examples of the 1925 pictorials shown used from small villages. Upper cover sent by the offices of the League of Nations supervising the mandate. Lower airmail letter to the Oriental Institute in Chicago. Note that the latter was underpaid and a postage due marking applied. SYRIA II Deir-ez-Zor Airmail Overprints on Pictorials 2 July 1925 ee On 1 March 1925, concurrent with the release of the pictorial set for regular postage, four values were overprinted "Avion" in green for airmail use. Shown here on a flight cover from Deir-ez-Zor to Rakka. SYRIA II YRIA Damas-Salhie Airmail Overprints on Pictorials 11 June 1937 . Damas 6 January 1930 DAMAS5 FEET H HEHE HHH t Ht It was soon decided that the green "Avion" overprint did not sufficiently identify the stamps as airmails. Therefore, on 1 May 1925 both that set and pictorials without the green overprint were additionally overprinted with a red airplane. SYRIA II Damas Refugee Relief Airmails 7 September 1926 The current airmail issue was overprinted "Secours aux Refugies" and issued on 1 April 1926. These stamps were sold for an additional 25 paras per stamp, which was used for refugee relief for victims of the Druze uprising. Shown used here on cover from Damascus to Deir-el-Zor. SYRIA II Surcharged Airmails Damas 31 August 1933 a Sanieeeamaaanel : .. 5 September 1936 creepers - American School For Girls Damascus Syria eels aie In 1929, changes in rates required the issuance if a 1 piastre airmail (with black airplane on a red stamp) and the creation of an airmail stamp out of the 15 p. overprint on 25 piastres. Note that the lower cover, sent registered from Damascus to Beirut, has a double 4 p. surcharge on the 0.25 p. definitive. ° SYRIA II Damas Surcharges on Pictorials 28 April 1930 Alep 30 November 1939 a PALA CE HOT! ; , Ya vlenae Le. Z BL , Vas we wt par Avion 2 > a es oS or => em ue Frau See eee Lina Buetiger Hotzestrasse 43 Zluirich 6 ERE SS oth SS OD oe Ee OE EME oe OP em ee ee ce Ui See. SESERS: Se Suace SDAA IA AAD AL BPA PDI OT ee Because of changes in postal rates, several of the pictorial stamps were surcharged with new denominations at various times. Shown above are the 7.50 p. on 2.50 p., the 2 p. on 7.50 p. and 12.50 p. on 10 p. SYRIA II Damas Exposition Damascus Industrial Exhibition 10 September 1929 14 September 1929 REGISTERED On 5 September 1929 in honor of an Industrial Exposition in Damascus, the current regular postage and airmail stamps were overprinted "Exposition Industrielle/Damas 1929." Examples shown above on covers to Beirut and Romania. Note special postmark used at the exposition grounds. SYRIA II Damas Second Pictorial Airmails 2 March 1938 29 December 1944 AN LR age bop OAKLAND TEXTILE 6°, 381 Fourth Avenue “ge . New York 16;N.¥. s On 1 September 1937 a new set of pictorial airmails was issued, showing scenes of Aleppo and Damascus. Examples shown here, with one in mixed franking with the 1931 airmails. SYRIA II Damas 10th Anniversary of Airmail 16 July 1938 eres PAR AVION : Sab! sat! Se No asm facil Agr a eS Mr, F.W. Kessler 551 Fifth Ave 4 NEW=YORK * a On 15 July 1938, a single airmail stamp was issued commemorating the 10th anniversary of the first direct airmail service between France and the Levant by Pilot Maurice Nogues. Cover received in New York on 1 August. Sheet Ir il Souveni irmal SYRIA II -- 10th Anniversary of A Damas 15 July 1938 S av as E | ce 03h SOKA GP EOE INC AEP 28g © fs awe die Jobe ee on ar aouue .X aAC-2dUeI] aeysodoize wostey] aaiwaig & > mmeitpedxe,T @ reumnoyer sunof ¢ ep TeLTap UN step UOSTeIATT Uo ep s¥Bd Ue SYRIA II Second Pictorials Deir-el-Zor 25 June 1943 Damas 24 April 1943 PALESTINE CTE BY RIENNE| A set of engraved pictorial stamps was issued in 1940, depicting various scenes in Syria. Examples shown on postal card to Lebanon and cover to Palestine. SYRIA II Third Pictorial Airmails = REPUBLIQUE SYRIENNE “PONT DE DEIR-EL- ZOR Damas-Salhie 15 May 1940 Eye CST WN WAL ee TET aes ‘DE DEIR-EL-ZOR period was yet another set of airmails issued on 15 May 1940 The final stamps issued for Syria during the French -Zor. Shown here on a registered cover to Beirut. depicting the bridge over the Euphrates at Deir-el SYRIA II Damas Official Mail 7 May 1927 HAUT COMMISSARIAT . REPUBLIQUE FRANGAISE DELEGATION AUPRES DES ETATS DE SYRIE ET DU DJEBEL DRUZE 2-02 VENVOYE EXTRAORDINAIRE ee = ee e P 7 ee wed t + A PE et Monsieur Rene MA THIS —~ France ) e Official mail of the Delegation to the States of Syria and Djebel Druze sent from Damascus to France. With the official cachet of the Delegation, payment of postage was not required. SYRIA I Tresor et Postes 610 Military Mail 26 October 1929 22 December 1937 COLLEGE FRANCAIS DES LAZARISTES Damas _/ fo 2 : dhe yt shes : See ——_ By the late 1920s, the political situation in the Levant had stabilized, so there were fewer troops and less use of the fieldpost stations. However, examples can be found, as above from FPO #610 in Damascus. Upper one sent by an educational institute and required postage. Lower cover from General Fouque to the French Ambassador to China at Shanghai required 1.75 francs postage as the military franchise no longer applied in 1937. SYRIA II Free French Censorship a BY ATHMATL irs AMERICAN COMMODITEES EXPORT co, Y Peeygerntso eet ii 8 NEW-YORK Lattaquie 23 November 1942 During the war, Trans-Atlantic airmail rates rose sharply due to longer routing. This cover from Latakia to New York City was franked with stamps paying postage of 101.50 piastres. Free French censor tape applied and marked with circular "CP (Postal Control" and Cross of Lorraine. ALAWITE TERRITORY In 1923, the French became weary of Syrian resistance to their administration and decided on a "divide and conquer" policy under which different geographic areas and religious sects were granted various degrees of autonomy. Greater Lebanon became a separate French mandate, and the Alawite Territory (Alaouites in French) along the Mediterranean coast of Syria was set up as a separate state to be provided with its own postage stamps. Djeble SYRIA January 1930 ALAWITE TERRITORY LEBANON ETAT des ALAOUITES A 4 ee —Dec- DELEGATION FRANCAISE Service des Renseignements ARS ‘ ee : Vy E ) Dingn, ow y/ AAA AGS reser. : Be “Coe : AACE LE. Px » Official cover sent by a member of the French Delegation to the Alawite State from the town of Djeble to Paris. Backstamped in transit in Beirut on 8 January 1930 and for receipt in Paris on the 15th. ALAWITE TERRITORY Lattaquie First Overprints 19 January 1925 The first stamps for the Alawite Territory were issued in January 1925, consisting of overprints inscribed "Alaouites" in French and Arabic as well as being surcharged in piastres. Above cover sent from Latakia to Alsace by the Director of Health, Hygiene and Public Assistance for the Alawite Territory. Received in Mulhouse on 30 January. ALAWITE TERRITORY Tartous First Airmail Overprints 18 January 1925 PAR AVION Airmail stamps for the Alawite Territory (12,595 sets) were also issued in January 1925, consisting of similar overprints inscribed “Alaouites" as well as "Avion" reading down along the right side. Above cover sent from Tartous to Damascus, where it was received the following day. In addition to the four issued values, a few copies of a prepared but unissued 2 piastres on 2 francs denomination came into philatelic hands. ALAWITE TERRITORY Lattaquie Second Overprints 18 May 1926 13 December 1926 LATTAQUIE — BouleS& de KAyta, ) iy oh (~ veclinie Ue a (PP. J. lo . 25 fo gl a4 Aa y ee a Ne a . Sul, Ke ae thAnA_/ f, és J 4 Fo 9 te AM rt “tr ra - Q Dos be a, foawd : 286047 U.S.A. Later in 1925, a new set of overprints was issued, this time with "Alaouites" in French and Arabic on pictorial stamps of Syria. In addition, changes in rates in 1926-1928 required that some of these be surcharged with new values. Examples shown above on picture postcard to Senegal and registered cover to Massachusetts. ALAWITE TERRITORY Lattaquie Second Overprints 26 March 1930 4 December 1931 =o Paced eae ee = tnigietaen PA Ay ATR Tighe Vou Siar ee WO ae es Two interesting if philatelically influenced covers. The upper example is overfranked with the 25 piastre highest value of the set but was properly mailed to Germany, where it was received on 7 April. Lower cover has two different errors. The two postage stamps were intended to be surcharged 12 P. and are so designated in Arabic, but the French surcharge reads only 1 P. The two postage due stamps have double overprints. Backstamped for receipt in Haffe the following day. ALAWITE TERRITORY Banias Second Overprints 11 February 1926 2 ste HR) i es draenei — Safita 23 June 1929 YO Fi .8.O, Rouad 27 July 1934 Diet pee Bite oui as BS Alawite covers used from the smaller post offices are an entirely different matter. Examples such as those shown above are distinctly elusive. ALAWITE TERRITORY Kerdaha Second Airmail Overprints 25 April 1925 Tartous 2 July 2? VERIO KCAQUITESNS Nba Ney PAR AVION. RSS $3 a Aisi Lecrepedles, 59 he The overprints on Syrian pictorials were further overprinted for airmail service and issued on 1 March 1925. In this case "Avion" was added on the left side of the stamps, reading up. Most of the additional overprints were in green, but a few sets were overprinted in red, as shown on the lower cover to Greece. ALAWITE TERRITORY Tartous Third Airmail Overprints 24 May 1926 ee \ a ; (3 4 U In order to provide a clearer designation of the airmail nature of the stamps, four values with new overprints depicting an airplane in red were issued on 1 May 1926. Examples shown here flown to Damascus, where it was received on the following day. Lattaquie 12 August 1929 21 August 1931 ALAWITE TERRITORY Airmail Surcharges Par Avion Via Beyrouth Marseille ‘$23 Som CEM MOS ees Seo AEM cam ORE ERD Ce MRD ee se Gee Se oem SOR Se cot GED Gm ED et Dan OAD ES SE ome one nem om mm ae nO om SAUNA in. "PAR AVION | sod atm Be Ae AA oe , NTN) fessieurs Francis J.Field,itd. fe oP PO 0 mn bi OR et Gon GN OR Oem cmt Gn mw oo ee me me me COLO 1 fae $509 AY SAD POR Emm Men come CED SAD SED alee mis coat a> oad come Soe See ENGLAND Due to postal rate increases, some new denominations were overprinted for airmail (with the plane in black on the 1 piastre stamp printed in red). In addition, some of the regular stamps surcharged with new denominations were pper and lower case letters as opposed to all capitals for the others. overprinted. These latter have "Alaouites" in u Dates of issue were June 1929 to January 1930. ALAWITE TERRITORY Lattaquie Late Use of Alaouites Stamps 14 August 1936 Rouad 15 February 1936 The name of Alaouites was changed to Lattaquie on 15 April 1930. However, the earlier stamp issues were not demonetized and continued in use. These examples were still properly being used on covers to Beirut more than five years after the change. ALAWITE TERRITORY ‘Tresor et Postes 611 Official Mail 18 December 1925 Poste aux Armees 611 3 November 1925 TERRITOIRE AUTONOME des ALAQUITES L’ ADMINISTRATEUR atten French administrators in the Alawite Territory were served by FPO #611, which was located at Latakia. DJEBEL DRUZE In the mid-1920s, the Druze sect was granted some degree of autonomy in their lands around the Druze Mountain in the far south of Syria. However, this did not extend so far as to establish a separate postal service or issue stamps. As a result, mail that can be identified as coming from the Djebel Druze is quite scarce. It, like Latakia, was reabsorbed into Syria in 1937. ' Post aux Armees 608 13 March 1932 26 October 1933 ETAT DU DJEBEL DRUZE oe G JUVERNORAT the “State of Djebel Druze.” The lower example is from the Provost of the territory. Both were sent These covers are examples of official mail from Djebel Druze. The upper cover has a corner card of to France via fieldpost office 608 in Rayak. DJEBEL DRUZE Military Mail Poste as T1837 Syrian Franking = Soueida 12 December 1940 ON 4 LOUIS J. PATAKY 2 7 “ : Sous-Officier Service du Génie oe << Secteur Postal: 608 Soué:da S — (Djébel Druze) Armée Francaise du | evant — Se = = - - a ee oe A ee , P a 33% 3Z73uu00 NS an & | $3S3u uid NOS IWSIH9G, SHINIO Soo Sus NOSIS: eae f ~ [ENOSONENYG, NA NAN CEO LIUR SS Separate stamps were never issued for the mountainous Djebel Druze, probably because of its remoteness and low literacy factor among the inhabitants. In fact, any mail from this area is exceedingly elusive. Upper example was mailed by a French engineer at FPO 608 in Soueida, the main (and based on maps, possibly the only) town in the territory. Lower cover represents civil mail franked with 11.50 piastres of various Syrian stamps and sent to Michigan. Transit backstamp of Damascus on 15 December. te aux Armees EUPHRATES TERRITORY a OT Wchl a8 Vaguemestre d'Etapes/10 Levant as 20 April 1939 Another partly autonomous area was the Euphrates Valley in eastern Syria. Separate stamps were never issued , but markings can be found indicating use in this territory. Upper cover from FPO #613, which was opened at Deir el Zor on | April 1924. Lower cover sent from Rakka in the "Territory of the Euphrates" to Aleppo. LATAKIA On 15 April 1930, the name of the Alawite Territory was changed to Latakia (Lattaquie in French). This reflected the fact that not all of the inhabitants of the area were members of the Alawi sect, so that a geographic designation was more appropriate. Thus, the name of the capital city was adopted for the territory. As of 5 December 1936, Latakia was absorbed back into Syria, and its stamps became invalid on | March 1937. Lattaquie 14 January 1936 19 February 1936 a aes hl COG, i POM 2 a 4 eee! rR nol on a cian imei ae aoe ee? eee Yo Mes. Horie ooke and tea ne $8 oa: WoC 2 On ae Rak a aera Serer Stee: Vas Mi > ( Urea eS fA rita TED The first Latakia stamps were overprints inscribed in French and Arabic on the current Syrian definitives and issued in 1931. Upper example shows the two lowest denominations properly used to pay the printed matter rate on a wrapper to France. Lower cover has mixed Alawite and Latakia issues but was underpaid to London. LATAKIA Lattaquie Mixed Franking 25 July 1933 22 September 1936 "Mr. David M, Hallier, West Side~¥, Mow, S209—FrenkLin Blvdv> Because there were still large supplies of "Alaouites" stamps still in the post offices and in the hands of customers, examples of mixed franking with "Lattaquie" overprints are frequently seen. The above examples sent to Ohio and Lebanon. LATAKIA Banias Overprints on Syria 15 December 1935 Tartous 25 December 1936 TY Np cite ee a The current Syrian airmails were overprinted “Lattaquie" and issued on 19 November 1931. These stamps are usually found along with the regular issues, as shown on the upper cover from Banias to Beirut. Lower cover was sent by airmail from Tartous to Argentina, an unusual destination. LATAKIA Lattaquie Overprints on Syria 10 April 1933 “=x Rouad 26 November 1934 ie ee). aay RE aa he p lin 4 | oe \ Export Department Capehart Corporation ; Ns co fj apt dls al vet 2 So Qo Ye ye) J Examples of commercial use of "Lattaquie" stamps on registered cover from Latakia to Indiana and on letter from Rouad to Tripoli, Lebanon. LATAKIA Postes aux Armees 608 Military Mail 12 June 1938 French forces in Latakia were served by FPO #608, which was located at the city of the same name. ALEXANDRETTA In early 1938, the French created a separate district of Alexandretta out of the northern coastal area of Syria, reflecting the fact that this territory contained a substantial number of ethnic Turks who preferred separation rather than being a minority among the Arabs in the coming independent Syria. In fact, by 9 September 1938, the French had agreed to turn over the territory to Turkey. Officially, the transfer was made on 21 July 1939, with the name of Hatay being adopted for the territory, and the name of the city Iskenderun. Alexandrette TURKEY 21 December 1938 ALEXANDRETTA SYRIA The first Alexandretta stamps were overprints "Sandjak d'Alexandrette" on the current Syrian definitives and issued in 1938. This cover sent to Beirut, where it was received on 31 December 1938. ALEXANDRETTA Antioche Overprints on Syria 6 June 1938 paar eee ss - as ~ oe my Alexandrette ao a ghd a a We ne ve oa : 26 July 1938 - ALEXANDREPTA Geo. J. Scharschug, Esq., Cable Editor, Ps "CHICAGO TRIBUNE" ne@fpaper, 1B — 7 . ‘dribune square, Additional examples of overprints on Syria. Postal stationery envelope sent from Antioch to Damascus. Lower cover sent by air from Tripoli, Lebanon to Marseilles, France and then by surface to the addressee in Illinois. ALEXANDRETTA Antioche Overprints on Syria 9 June 1938 Saquk-Olouk 17 September 1938 Committee for the Excavation of Antioch FIELD HEADQUARTERS ANTIOCH, SYRIA a Cex Bi OVO 2 Memiutt Ae ie, Ze £95" £; fle Vs Are - Alexandretta overprints used from other towns are quite elusive. Examples shown above are covers from Saquk- Olouk to Beirut and from Antioch to New York. ALEXANDRETTA Alexandrette Surcharges on Syria 31 October 1938 as -~ tf OY Nine ANS” os Gk GP Due to changes in postal rates, two new values were created by surcharging the earlier stamps. These are shown (with an additional unsurcharged value) on a registered cover from Alexandretta to France, where it was received on 7 November 1938. ALEXAN DRETTA Alexandrette Official Mail 25 November 1938 HAUT-COMMISSARIAT DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE S/ DELEGATION D ALEXANDRETTE 5 SNELL IRON DoE IS f&.C : : Monsieur Jacques BO ThE = 02 Dak Offiee des ktats du Levant ©ous Mandat Francais 105 Rue du_Fsubourg Saint-Honoré Ios Poke Frenee Official letter from the office of the High Commission of the French Republic in Alexandretta to the office for the French Mandate in the Levant in Paris. Postage was free but 12.50 piastres had to be paid for registration. ALEXANDRETTA Vaguemestres d'Etapes/1 Levant Military Mail 28 January 1939 Official cover from the Commandant of Antioch to the Chief of Engineers in Aleppo, where it was delivered the following day. Note late type of military postmark inscribed "Vaguemestres d'Etapes." ALEXANDRETTA Alexandrette Mourning Overprint 15 March 1939 \ © < a Ss a Wp) : : fo ort Sau i ‘ | — « = = & f oy The President of Turkey, Kemal Ataturk, died on 10 November 1938. The final stamps for Alexandretta were mourning overprints issued in honor of Ataturk in December 1938. Examples shown on a cover to Beirut. FREE FRENCH FORCES Following the invasion of France by Germany in June 1940, a new French government was established under Marshal Petain at Vichy. On 28 June, the French High Commissioner and the commander of the Army of the _Levant announced their allegiance to the Vichy government. On 8 June 1941, British and Free French troops invaded Syria and Lebanon from Palestine, occupying Damascus on the 21st. All resistance by the Vichy forces ceased on 14 July 1941. Later in 1941, the French terminated their mandate and granted independence to Lebanon and Syria, although the Allied troops maintained their presence until the end of the war. Courier Mail 3 December 1941 Civilian mail continued to use the normal postage stamps of the Syrian and Lebanese Republics, although mail was subject to Allied censorship. In 1942, the Free French established fieldpost offices to provide for the letters from the troops. The above cover is a forerunner of that service, being sent by courier from the Commandant of the Troops for North Syria based in Aleppo. Note Free French cachet depicting the Cross of Lorraine. FREE FRENCH FORCES Beyrouth Forerunner 9 May 1942 = UE if LUE: LIBANFISE The special stamps for the Free French forces were issued in mid-1942, presumably on 1 June. Thus, the above cover sent by the General Delegation of Free France in the Levant from Beirut is a forerunner of the fieldpost system by about four weeks. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M.1 Overprinted Stamps 22 October 1943 WARS mt IE te oad Ly = SN MWhowsttens Av [ 2ecctisca | bn Cocke WAL acre ee aN ay haw We a os In mid-1942 the Free French overprinted three Syrian and Lebanese pictorials with "Free French Forces/Levant" for ordinary postage and four with "F.A.F.I." for airmail. These were used at the fieldpost offices as B.C.M. (Bureau Central Militaire) #1 above, located in Beirut on a cover to Gabon in French Equatorial Africa. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/F.F.L.6 Overprinted Stamps 11 June 1942 — 2a see So a Poste aux Armees/B.C.M.1 : oe . oS 1 December 1942 ox 7 ‘ ye ‘ LO v ; ~ : - ae 7 5 ONMAONS Errpei'y > J AL MILIT, £ + POST E # “CONTROL The earliest postmarks used by the Free French were inscribed Poste aux Armees/F.F.L. (French Forces in the Levant) in June 1942, as shown on the upper cover sent to the Cameroons. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/E.F.L.1 Pictorials 4 June 1942 are Hw, Bras fon = eases : o peg S AERIENNES Sick PEA LAO LOA LAPT MR, B, T.. BAROODY P, 0, BOX NO, 153 BEYROUTH, LIBAN, On 1 June 1942, a set of seven stamps for regular postage (inscribed "Free French Forces/Levant") and two for airmail were issued. Above philatelic cover from FPO #1 in Beirut was mailed to a local stamp dealer. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M. 1 Pictorials 2 February 1943 STAL MILITAIRE CONTROLE Pe Commercial usage of Free French pictorials to pay 4 franc airmail rate to another French territory. Cover from B.C.M. (Central Military Bureau) #1 in Beirut to the Cameroons. Censored upon mailing and again on arrival. Backstamped for receipt at Kribi on 20 February 1943. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.P.M. 6 Pictorials 22 June 1943 Poste aux Armees/F.F.L. 2 8 September 1943 _ L ga te ai LUT i BCA: Commercial usage of Free French pictorials. Upper cover from B.P.M. (Military Postal Bureau) #6 to Chad. Lower cover from F.F.L. #2 in Damascus to Togo. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.P.M.5 Pictorials 5 January 1943 Bee COM mrar fe ta fyoy ga oe ~— — > cer Phin . Wend Loe Subdiviovenr 1/5 eee ace HO fpetdo _ Cam te lng | Commercial cover franked with a 6.50 franc pictorial airmail and sent from B.P.M. #5 to Dschang, Cameroons. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M. 4 23 December 1943 "Resistance" Overprints n x ‘ nh PDE DD PPD RD RD eS DEWA FRINGE ‘Bie, cid i DE LA FRANCE Lipre © r LAO DOL AAARADOn OF SORIANO) LAO OOO ROOD OAAAD Som ASaAS na Ma Forces FRat satan Monsieur le s/Lieuwtenant BEYNET Chef de Service In 1943, two regular postage and two airmail stamps were overprinted "Resistance," urging steadfastness in opposition to Fascism. Note the extremely high surcharges, especially the 10 franc +100 franc denomination. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M.1 Surcharged Pictorials 22 October 1943 The final two Free French Levant stamps were issued in 1943 when postal rates were reduced, thus creating a requirement for 4 franc stamps. To meet this demand, the 3 franc regular issue and 6.50 franc airmail were surcharged with the new denomination. FREE FRENCH FORCES Damas First Flights 19 January 1943 6 f f f Ny : wi PAEWIERE UialSOR ac@enaE 22 encier a3 SYRIE- LIBAN SOMALIE FRANCAISE Wh “i “Gn “i, “ih Wh Vee amy ae «hey «ny er a awl Aggie. ae itn FRANCE Lo» SOEBIERE Uiaisom ecniceus 82 éenvier 1eag SYRIE-LIBAR MABAGASCAR | eo a eS TT : | y ¢ y The Free French were anxious to create and publicize improved communications with other territories where pro- Vichy administrations had been replaced by pro-Allied ones. One method was to organize airmail services, as indicated by these first flight covers from Damascus to French Somaliland and Madagascar. FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M.1 First Flights 20 January 1943 8 April 1943 R. BALECHE REGIE DU CADASTRE BEYROUTH (REP. LiBANAISE) Poste aux Armées des FEL. ' | Lignes postales aériennes 1 liaison Damas-Tananarive ; 22 Janvier 1943 | s Monsieur le Lieutenant Médecin Sy RENE BOISSRUIL / SAINT DiNIS En cas de non livraison, mot ease cnn e- priere de retourner &-1'expéditeur | ° (REUNION coms | = Sa ee 7, } yste alk OTD Se ce presmoees oe ¥ianes HOF Lignes Pp iaison Levant-Alger s fave Vo | Réouverture 12 | | \ ee ate LARNER NES FB PEPS PPI S PODS (A WENVOYEUY FREE FRENCH FORCES Poste aux Armees/B.C.M.2 First Flights 6 January 1944 Moskva 18 January 1944 ty ‘ Mission Mili a Gre Francaise wo Sc ou U.R.S.5.m ce Kew WOosSTE AUK Pie BEMIS ohana ; » t : ee 4 Br wiLAA SAPABCTEYET s ~ AND | BNE tenes ae a ie - i TasaNN j WEA SS VP Ul vabesNobaerseh scenes “a ° | ENE Sees ah ake Ce) YE eis eieNe tc) AA 3 PY sun cUInClnss Vy tasrsclene coteliokie IW ola te) ceeeeFe es t-0h CTAAAH e oe » J if Oe On ag yt Pow Vay oe Has ince oe Arcee ad Spee crap FREE co porrure HOSCGY ~ GANAS E The most unusual of the first flights were those to and from the Levant and the French Military Mission in the U.S.S.R. The upper cover has a Soviet receiving mark of 17 January and the lower cover was posted on the following day for service on the return flight to Damascus.