The Break-Up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1918-1923 (Text Content)

This web page, published by the Military Postal History Society, contains the text content of the single frame The Break-Up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1918-1923. This exhibit was created by, and is the property of the late Al Kugel, and is being supplied by his heirs as a courtesy to the Military Postal History Society.

Introduction Text

This exhibit documents through contemporary postal material the history of the disintegration of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire into rump Austria and Hungary as well as the creation of several new successor states in Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and the augmentation of other neighboring countries, i.e. Italy and Romania.

In a number of cases, disputes arose over specific territories, which either became subject to plebiscites and/or precipitated military conflicts before the final boundaries could be settled.

In most cases, postal services remained in transition for some considerable period. Initially, the new governments continued to use the stamps of the old monarchy; then provisional overprints -- official, local or private -- were introduced; and, finally, definitives were produced reflecting the new political order.

Historical Note

These exhibit page scans were made from black and white photocopies of the original exhibits. Those exhibits were created by Al Kugel many years ago, and are presented here for historical and research purposes. As far as the MPHS is aware, there are no color scans available of these older exhibit pages, nor for any of the illustrated postal history items. Because of the poorer quality of the original photocopies, the text information may have not been accurately extracted (OCR).

To view the exhibit page images, see: web page containing the image content of the exhibit frame.

Updated 11/11/2022

Text Content of Exhibit


This exhibit documents through contemporary postal material the history of the disintegration of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire into rump Austria and Hungary as well as the creation of several new successor states in Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and the augmentation of other neighboring countries, i.e. Italy and Romania.

In a number of cases, disputes arose over specific territories, which either became subject to plebiscites and/or precipitated military conflicts before the final boundaries could be settled.

In most cases, postal services remained in transition for some considerable period. Initially, the new governments continued to use the stamps of the old monarchy; then provisional overprints -- official, local or private -- were introduced; and, finally, definitives were produced reflecting the new political order.

As shown in the plan of the exhibit on the next page, the material is laid out geographically, extending from west to east. The story starts with the residual Austria and Hungary and their associated territories in the west and ends up with the Balkan states and Ukraine on the south and east. A reasonable selection of military mail is included in order to give a more complete story of the changes which occurred, but much of the material shown illustrates civil mail services of the various authorities, often in disputed, occupied and annexed areas.

Postcard sent by member of the German-Austrian Delegation negotiating the Treaty of St. Germain following the end of World War I. Under the treaty, Austria was required to give up all non-German speaking territories, and 5 million ethnic Germans were forced to live under foreign mule in Sudetenland and the South Tirol.

The theme of the exhibit, of course, is to trace the events following the collapse of the dual monarchy and to review the various new postal regimes created in the different corners of the former empire. Many of these changes proved to be relatively temporary themselves in that a little more than 20 years later, the stability of Central Europe was again subject to great turmoil in the period immediately preceding and during World War II.


Remainder Austria and Hungary:



Countries Enlarged:



Free City Created:


New Nations Created:




Postcard sent by member of the Hungarian Delegation negotiating the Trianon Treaty (named after the Trianon palace at Versailles where the document was signed). Under the treaty, Hungary was required to give up-all non-Magyar territories and 3 million ethnic Hungarians were forced to live under foreign rule. GERMAN-AUSTRIA As World War I ended, the Hapsburg Empire began to break up even before the Austro-Hungarian army was defeated in the field. On 30 October 1918, the German-speaking members of the Parliament proclaimed the state of German-Austria, without specifying the form it should take. When Emperor Karl renounced his rights to govern on 11 November, German-Austria was declared a Republic the following day. Wien Forerunners 4 : . 31 October 1918 ' Absender: ; a , f u Feldkirch Caesitarel - | 27 December 1918 Teena ; , a“ 7 'Feldpostkarte. Peet “ we A Z 4 ea ‘oS \tatel]: . SAS bya cat Posies = LE Ay flee < /é} 45F a Prescatator: Lf re a Postage-free card sent to a fieldpost station on the day after German-Austria was created. In the chaotic conditions at the end of the war, it could not be delivered and was returned fy Ae to sender. re 57? The stamps of the Monarchy continued to be valid for postage in the Republic for an extended period of time. generally for two years until 31 October 1920. They were accepted either on their own or in mixed franking with German-Austria overprints and definitives. AUSTRIA Local Issues are er emer rn TT ee ee ee 8 Local overprint depicting the Tirolian Eagle on postal card and additional stamp used to pay registration at Innsbruck. Knittelfeld 14 December 1918 Innsbruck 4 January 1919 Two values of the Knittelfeld locals used on cover were not canceled because the post office was aware that they would not be accepted upon arrival in Graz. In the aftermath of defeat, central authority was undermined and conditions remained abnormal for some period. Desiring to recognize the change in circumstances, some local authorities devised Overprints to blot out the imperial symbols on the stamps. Two such cases are illustrated above. GERMAN-AUSTRIA Innsbruck German-Austria stamp paid postal increase on similarly overprinted letter card. To Spd ee, OAL POL POD Bb Phelan LY etn ny rae at The first stamps issued by the Republic were imperial issues overprinted “Deutschosterreich (German-Austria).” These were issued as production permitted, with the the 20 heller value becoming available in December 1918, followed by others out through June 1919. In all, 19 regular postage. 3 special delivery and 5 newspaper stamps were overprinted. As with the unoverprinted issues, the provisionals were valid for postage until 31 October 1920. ge Provisional Overprints 23 April 1919 0 Werle = ZI ! Wien N 5 August 1919 IN 19 February 1920 N 4 ‘ The | . 3 ES | Imperial postal card uprated ON . 7 by 30 heller in mixed issues N uo: for registration to Bavaria i j 2 ae Mes y ae ca a ee ee > i SR ena . R Innsbruck 2 i * = | a 1794 | ee igs aN oe eu iN : oS ae aI a i fe 4 2: ‘ ae ci pati fF PS Fs, a SP eh a Ru q Imperial pneumatic postal arto aut cava eM getgh ": control authorities cc 3 TT, ff i S / in Germany, with Zisss § € . La j fp. i two different labe!s S33 Sete? tice: ce ue VOCCOC1E SG being applied. Ota- _= o So = * SIS} zy Qiks , a f$SS 3 qe" aa In July 1919 the first definitive stamps inscribed "German-Austria" were issued. The values through 1 krone depicted a posthor, the arms of the republic, and a symbolic planting of atree. This series. was valid for postage through 31 July 1922. AUSTRIA Bad Ischl First Regular Postage & Airmails 11 May 1922 é Alt Aussee a 25 August 1922 a Wien 31 October 1922 2 Mixed franking of Austria and German-Austria. poy i : Seas First day cover of Republic Lh@g, air mail stamps. rc. 2m ot tes Andrassy ut.4& When the Treaty of St. Germain was signed, it officially ended the First World War for Austria. A provision in the treaty banned the unification of Germany and Austria without approval by the League of Nations and led the Allies to demand that the new state not be called German-Austria. Eventually, the name was changed, and stamps issued from January 1922 on (a period of considerable inflation) were inscribed simply "Austria." AUSTRIA Salzburg Salzburg Plebiscite 21 May 1921 29 May 1921 ~~ eee, Segre Pee NEN = Ojfizielle aes Ausserfeld ry pPerausgegeben und ju, begieben vom “bjtimmunasay f cu 8 June 1921 bes —™ ~. 065 Dandes® Salhi yf x 4 wee of Veen Saget SS Re ae seer O Ce t oa & VT41-9 FSS ee. ee . a RD - tM F&F @ ane: Propaganda card wwe am Bo Se et, and vignette used * : : < » Be 5 ~L.b. . e 5 ¢< eG ae ; to promote the at? Lad a — Q “ a Ef Bore? ey t f - j plebiscite. rn > ie (oe Lan A 19 Samy UN ye AL 4 they . ke eR wats Co Pa 7 7 : See = * > ne * Pose - RS seas ‘ 5 Sia, (RSE . Go, Se eS WO AR 6 eas! fe > e Ao oA - (oe pe .- & os oe So SOON hes Ces ~* “= =? “eS Be : \ “— & Se) oe ON, ~~ F) € e¢ (We | £ we. = 3 a. © bo SD SE SE ge ea 8 & Ss ~ - ay ate 2 Hea | Be Se ae ees cera Local overprint cancelled on day that the plebiscite was seh. nhels (foe, wl ip PEM oe eee fiir den Anjehluy an eae NY Deutfcye Reich (29. Mai 1921) cece pon = Sompek jun.) * = ‘ Pojtkarte. INOS TCS ex S S KANE 3, SS LEN OES AS : ~~ ’ & f & y wt r Sigtigeis pa Re NUNS ayes pee EP YE ADE Se” ‘ : NY : : Sunt SUSE Pra Ques TE A ESAT SE AEBS a YA fo. ss * a N eR CST SQE YE eke oF of yond a ie ae 7) ~ Se KEIO Ay rR Le P Dw et - TELS Ani rsd i sn Pare Ra Nor SARS N ie fkann a ~ S} WK ESN PS c = SS . ‘ oo is 7 SP OSs Ka F Ka @® te Sha Pe rN ASR EER C006 tle. WAS Ss Fo RE. AG SRA se once omen SeRASLALH SEN graben Seba Ltit1g y Rar LPS §, & Ey 8 ASE SERRE 2 In spite of the Treaty of St. Germain, many Austrians wished to unite with Germany. Salzburg even conducted a plebiscite on this question on 29 May 1921, to no avail. of course. This effort did result in some locally-used Overprints as well as propaganda postcards. AUSTRIA London American Relief Organizations 21 February 1920 Wien 7 June 1920 The American Relief Administration 3s 2 | established an AMERICAN RELIEF WARE- 19: HOUSE in Vienna, Austria, You can buy | at any bank in the United States AMERICAN. _! RELIEF WAREHOUSE FOOD DRAFTS and send them to us in Vienna. On presentation of these FOOD DRAFTS at the warehouse in Vienna, we can draw AMERICAN FOOD. We are in great need of food in Austria. Individual food parcels sent from America usually do not reach us. Money does us no good when there is no food to buy. HELP US IN OUR DISTRESS BY SENDING AN AMERICAN RELIEF WARE- HOUSE FOOD DRAFT — QUICKLY! For further information apply to AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION, 115 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY. hans ty SAAS RRS RAR ETD AN SRA ee hh sa ade cee: a RS ms wae ~* ws Nas x : . ta ~ ema bop yaaa yt z * ed PLN rN (over) Mousse Karte mitbring ee | : “ oe a i os T ‘CA R Ck Gs We have received from the American _ Relief Administration Warehouses the food consigned to us through ‘thé medium of the food draft Nre__.t.....------—— The food including the government ration will last us ADOUt oa ccssceseceon _.weeks. We thank you for this valuable assistance and ask you not to forget us in the future.: you sent us. - If you wish to send us another draft apply to AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION, 115 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY or to your own or the-nearest bank, U. S. of America. * (over) J, Weiner, Vienna Food was scarce in postwar Austria. Due to the efforts of the American Relief Administration, it was possible for people in the U.S. to pay a sum of money to the ARA here and have a receipt issued which friends and relatives in Austria could take to a designated warehouse and get a food parcel. Upper card is a request form that were mailed to Americans. Lower card is a receipt that was to be taken to the warehouse in Vienna. AUSTRIA a Wien American Relief Organizations 21 July 1920 31 October 1920 i Amerikanische Kinderhilfsaktion Wien, |., GiselastraBe 13. ! . vee Cy pn ered Ave 2 wa) ~ yey. e -} Fe OD See, 7 wolf 28 Sey 7 Cp eeads Aa TE Tpit ty Fog ree, ~ & Lary -3 oe 7 foe “eg x, ow bey : ere Dep eel Len a 4 ‘ eEth ~ ‘ 3g ~ 7 mong ys, we + t 4 whe % ‘ . = ve we eet fe Dy Mo ee DP ep we De} py ete SD Lae po Pets RP LA a #F : I; > a : of a. ae é ee ee PE RAN OE UT ey es f - © Yew ee PL . } we i ‘ & . . fe te - ™“ y won ts Le at a #. ae ms to Ne Ae 2 ? Te IEG TE MRA TE Eg AS FOOD PACKAGES. RS cee. food w ant, paige. Sale ang K. si i erie Central’ America n ANT REBTEPSADMIN A ae ie OR DR: i "Austria. OQ x esentation of these F DRAFTS hie warehouse in Vienna we can draw SPECIAL CHRISTMAS.PACKAGES.. - containing SUGAR and COCOA in addition to the regular line of essential foodstuffs delivered during the past winter. Autumnfinds our food situation no better and the prospect of Christmas :. holds little hope for improvement. - HELP MAKE OUR CHRISTMAS BRIGH- “TER BY SENDING US AN AMERICAN RELIEF WAREHOUSE FOOD DRAFT. . For further Information apply to AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION, ' 42 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY or to your own or the nearest bank, eo U. S. of America. In addition to the ARA, there was an American Children's Aid Society which provided humanitarian services. Upper card was sent from that organization. Lower card is a special form from the ARA for a Christmas food package. Note special German/English. propaganda postmark honoring the ARA's European Children's Fund. AUSTRIA Army Post Office R.7 British Forces 7 December 1918 Field Post Office F.D.3 20 January 1919 yy rey, ey ore Hypa apr yyw woe rds we aS porta Ye ae 7 Writ LNT. ey . Wie - : eee 6 NAN 4 . x Pe ae Een ats OKI VID POM | te foie fd Following the Armistice, one British battalion was selected from the forces in Italy and sent into Austria as part of the Allied occupation troops. It was stationed at the town of Imst in the Tirol from 28 November 1918 until April 1919. Lacking local field post facilities, mail was taken back to either the 7th Division Railhead or a field distribution center in Italy for postmarking. AUSTRIA Danube Commission British Forces September 1919 3 March 1920 > UPRREIRE OA BD» - 2 ; ts ° j = SUNT RR SED Th NT ~ a ty oa [af os = ee Sil Page Te TA ae” . SS ~~ 9 : hAQ Pe 2 ee ophunli py * Sov x “S EN, 1 FE & Gy veh ; Ash FO Ve \ , TIS wee . Le At, START be : Pan: ee fr a *8 * “es : a ae =e S eatea, te Vet BAD al Sone wee cee ene lee SE a ee eee ll ee ee : i. le Official mail from the occupation authorities set up by the Allies was carried by military pouch to the War Office in London, where it was transferred to the postal service. Above examples from regulatory bodies in Vienna for control of shipping on the Danube River. AUSTRIA Interallied Food Mission/Vienna British Mission 1919-1920 British Railway Mission/Vienna 27 January 1920 - a sa 7 “9 mel Service: | Examples of mail from personnel involved in the British relief activities. Such mail was sent by diplomatic pouch to London and then turned over to the postal authorities. AUSTRIA Mission Militaire Francaise en Autriche French Military Mission 15 May 1919 AIZ eae rr ae ; . “ 11 October 1919 JP Fellle hha, At Lela cie FLU Ceeike theta ft mS (8 EMD EO BE Ws fe Lh by _ = 2 “ ee 8 oh 4 7 - t : . “ Sa Sn a ge Upon the surrender of Austria, Allied troops moved north from Italy and occupied strategic locations in the country. The cards shown above were sent by military courier to Paris, where they entered the mails. AUSTRIA Tresor et Postes *_* French Military Mission 28 April 1919 14 May 1920 Tresor et Postes 96 16 May 1924 + 1S with end Cv Lee LT - oe ‘ fo. ‘ * , : Lb: : ns 5 e re t Bo ~ is a. t+. cataad te 5 . 5s es re & 5 F ase aie bor TERT yD ee roe Ss 2 Bent gic Pol) L : Unit cachets used during the occupation of Austria include the "Mission to Styria - Carinthia," the "Mission for the Circulation of (Railway) Rolling Stock in Central Europe,” then located in Mariazell, and the "Railway Management for the Occupied Territories/Linz Station." Wien AUSTRIA November 1923 French Military Mission o~* . : = ais “4 COMMISSION MILITAIRE INTERALLIEE ! DE CONTROLE DANS LA REPUBLIQUE D’AUTRICHE 1se/c.c. Mademodselie PERER EB, i‘ a Chemin de Blémur -PIS8C OP, par . St-BRICE | _- ( Seine-et-0ise) Frankreich Upper cover represents official mail from the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission in Austria to Marshal Foch in Paris. Lower example was sent by the French representative on the Austro-Italian Boundary Commission in Bolzano (South Tirol) via the civil post office in Vienna. BURGENLAND This German-speaking area at the western edge of Hungary was awarded to Austria based on the Trianon Treaty ratified by the Hungarian parliament in November 1920. However, the actual transfer was delayed due to the activities of local insurgents who declared the independence of West Hungary (Lajtabansag). The Allies pressured the Hungarian government to control the insurgents and evacuate the territory -- which was completed on 13 November 1921. Provisional] Issue Jennersdorf 4 September 1921 2) pe : Yy hy PINS URS B Provisional overprints on Hungarian stamps, showing the Austrian eagle and new values in heller aud krone, were issued in early September 1921 when Austrian forces temporarily occupied Jennersdorf (Gyanafslva). Such stamps are considered local at best and likely private, but they are representative of the unsettled times ii. the area. BURGENLAND Eisenstadt Mixed Franking 2 September 1921 Bruck a.d. Leitha 14 November 1921 tp x iat ks yen ne: ae KN ne \ bey time ok ' ; “4 1,¢ ty g vou Johann Traxler. Pé tank ;- fs Ja bomy f 275 Troxler Jinos kladéoa, —-Verla fa Ose ad tf OO gine % ot ‘ ra Jf. 4K te, rag During the period of unsettlement in the West Hungarian area, both Austrian and Hungarian stamps were valid for postage. As such, examples of mixed franking of the two issues are of interest. BURGENLAND Neufeld a.d. Leitha Austrian Franking September 1921 Eisenstadt 25 January 1922 Ph A Tee te res : OTT ES a DEE PN MRE Re ote eon ' So pee ay OT = } gE wae Dar ye Socio cad "77 DR. BRUNNER JANOS. _ ; #e4 2 es ert -GayveD = *. RS oy Re ; Votes A KISMARTONI TAKAREKPENZTAR UGYESZE. - } f 7 - ¥ = . ADVOKAT ~"ANWALT DER EISENSTADTER SPARKASSA ~ ’ “KISMARTON., ~ OB9GQ ..: - . : . . Sel CN OE Noes an RR | TELEFON 13. , — & ge eg 8 ee ac ; . - _ ¢ 2 j oS le. in i 1 1 od { i . “ ‘ 1 i , 1 at ~ f ¢ Austrian postage was valid for postage both at the beginning of the unsettled period and after the transfer of the territory, known as Burgenland, which became the eighth federal state of the Austrian Republic. BURGENLAND Glssing Military Mail 19 November 192] Stegersbach 25 January 1922 “Stempel der-aufgebenden sel eS | goptaite |e "| | Berfstetppreis fie 25 Seid g0'S ebenden” ee én : d roe a ey ieies Do fifatte os No poo ~- Berfhleifpreis fir 25 Stic so Heller Boe ‘ea ee SGegriindung der Dortofeetelt: -. - “taf i. 4 HALE LAN Cy, y 4 be star / Teck, 73 2 \ a edn ane Sateen nee cen To insure that there would be no further difficulties from the West Hungarian insurgents over the transfer of the territory, Austrian troops were sent to Burgenland. Their mail was postage free provided that an appropriate unit cachet was applied. Above fieldpost cards provide examples of "Burgenland Service” and (in manuscript) "Border Guards/Burgenland." CARINTHIA This province in southern Austria came into dispute between the Republic and the South Slav state, and parts of the area were occupied by troops from Slovenia in 1919. This met with resistance from the local inhabitants, and the Allies decided to hold a plebiscite on 10 October 1920 in the southern part of the region (Zone A). The vote was 59% to remain with Austria. As a result, it was considered unnecessary to have a vote in the northern part (Zone B), which was even more pro-Austrian. Plebiscite Issue Klagenfurt sO 21 September 1920 cee of eee a Oey 10 October 1920 SACLE a RYN irate Sd. PK Ww ars ——....... —_————_———__ | 2879 2 : Or “oe “re I SURO RTARE OS ARETART TAR RR UE Tee eC RM : ters ‘ HolisaSftimmung in Rdenten | ou. 8, | Klagenfurt 4 ia | | nN O « f = E a 7% yi pe og : 1920. JOA q5. 2 POUT a — a in Bergesl? lind wir, wie sis Rarawantsn = . Slessen jelferiazt sole federjert, ce a Und ferns HY. Ost : a a Den Hgimal ireu im Sy we a . ‘ a 7 ; ©. * = od, 2) a De } - : 7 : hyp M Eb gly 2 Lege? * ti BaF Mirelex - " ” ¢ Wr ~e 43 ; we , . Vw — A a . A J a 2 a“ °* wek OFLA | 2 CO a $lbche W) aaa 04 OG oa w en wigs See oe a Ea ESS SENS ea ee Saga a wae wey On 16 September, Austria issued a set of overprints reading "Carinthia Plebiscite” as propaganda for the vote to be held the next month. These were valid for postage throughout the entire country but most examples were used in Klagenfurt, the capital of the province. CARINTHIA Klagenfurt Austrian Franking 10 March 1921 UES TT ers, f ay + , i. \e ‘ * “ b&é ie) : . ; ¢ + NRA terse me een tenner aA ARATE ke meee ne Ute - “awit oF nt “ After the plebiscite settled matters, Carinthia reverted to the use of Austrian stamps. Cover mailed five months later shows propaganda vignette of Carinthian dragon (a statue of which can be seen in the main square of Klagenfurt) chasing out the South Slavs. CARINTHIA Radkersburg Liberation Commemoration 29 July 1920 Spielfeld 8 August 1920 Der Teufel felber rium dad Feid, Wo deutide Trene SHhildwadht Hilt. Sefreiung vow Rabkersburg — 26, Buti 1920, ; alia dew bee: lew Ra, rileha thi 4 at . Ar Aenkharl ACV Yel Ey g Missanbia aes SY a eS a Bae b eee ey Wi Fot. 8. Frank, Graz 1918-19 baimbe Itudkeraburg - Vertag . Sumljrseh, ae Pee ae en ee RE Rent a noe ror Nem Se Peart en kee wi 2 : 4 During the unsettlement in Carinthia prior to the plebiscite, forces from both sides were active in the area. The cards commemorate the liberation of two towns in the disputed area, Radkersburg (on the Mur River -- even today the present boundary between Austria and Slovenia) and Spielfeld. This latter village issued local overprints to commemorate its liberation on 29 July 1920. CARINTHIA Volkermarkt Military Mail 27 August 1921 Bleiburg 13 October 192] Ofterreih wee Stempel der aufgebenden | __ Motte tf | Derfhletfpreig far 25 Stat 50 Heller | Ofterreich » Gtempel ber aufgebenden ‘ ay © Behitbe Doftfarte Derfdhleippreis far 25 Stic 50 He : YY To guard against potential incursions from the South, Austrian troops were stationed in Carinthia for some time after the plebiscite. Soldiers’ mail was free if an appropriate official cachet was applied. HUNGARY As was the case with Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary contained large numbers of minority groups, including Croatians, Italians, Romanians and Slovaks. As World War I ended, most of these people wished to live in countries with their ethnic brethren. As a result, the Hapsburg Empire fell apart almost overnight. On 31 October 1918, Count Karolyi formed a democratic government in Budapest. After King Karl IV renounced his rights to govern on 13 November, Hungary was declared a Republic on the 16th. Forerunners x Budapest 16 November 1918 ~-- TN LEVELEZO-LAP AE AP ANOLE Nils " ‘Wlmzdsex, figetavak, caisk smunkdk SSS lenin camels cover cancelled with SBUDBAPaASE ~~ postmark commemorating the proclamation of the Republic. — Guelalfo—l ne OMOXIC, Atami syomaa. Budageat, 1910. Most stamps of the Monarchy, which were inscribed "Magyar Kir. Posta (Hungarian Royal Posts)," continued to be valid for postage for an extended period of time, generally until 30 September 1922. (Those depicting the king and queen were demonetized on 23 November 1918.) They were accepted either on their own or in mixed franking with both overprints and new definitives. HUNGARY Budapest Provisional Overprints 14 December 1918 24 February 1920 wae See. 7918 era ng aed 7 CLS | Pozsony 1 155 . Republic overprints used to uprate postal card on which "Kur. (Royal)" was excised. ae | (A. Der Hib rors Aosje~) . a MN ee ae The first stamps issued by the Republic were royal issues overprinted "Koztarsasag (Republic)." These were valid from 23 November 1918 to 31 December 1920. In all. 19 regular postage, | special delivery and 3 semi- postal stamps were so overprinted. HUNGARY Republic Definitives eee ty Mes od Netra A alten neta ta 6 oA ‘92018 Budapest 10 June 1919 1 April 1920 Mixed franking of overprinted and definitive stamps of the Republic used on cover to Austria. 4N4 R Ajantott, © Budapest 4 oo So ps 4938 fi [~~~ In January 1919 the first definitive stamps were issued by the Republic. They had the same designs as the old set of the Monarchy. depicting grain harvesters and the parliament building in Budapest. However, they were simply inscribed "Hungarian Posts” without the "Kir." for Royal. They were valid for postage until-31 December 1920. ee ay re er ry ine lbien cima es arta tigen imme = HUNGARY Soviet Republic Provisionals et A 5.00 j R Rakosszentminaly = | 316 : jlntott \ (EXPRESS) R 2| Budapest 3 Bp. 3 586 Rakosszentmihaly 20 July 1919 Budapest 9 September 1919 Republic definitives overprinted "Magyar Tanacskoztarsasag (Hungarian Soviet Republic)" were used during the occupation of Budapest and the surrounding area. by the Bolshevik forces. On 21 March 1919, under the leadership of Bela Kun, a Soviet Republic was established in Budapest, forcing the national government to withdrew to Szeged in the southern part of the country. The Bolsheviks remained in power in the capital until the Romanian army arrived on 3 August 1919. The Soviet provisional overprints were issued in July 1919 and were valid for postage until the end of November. HUNGARY Budapest Soviet Republic Definitives 12 June 1919 1 July 1919 “ie § é § € ¢ ¢ 2 ¢ €. ’ ? $ 4 5 g See tate BUDAPEST SZEKESFOVAROS ELEKTROMOS MUVEI BUDAPEST, V., VACI-UT 72. SZAM. i } x ken. Although the Soviet definitive set depicting Karl Marx and other Communists was actually issued on 12 June 1919, some five weeks before the overprints, these stamps were intended more as propaganda and saw practically no non-philatelic postal use. Shown above are a locally-addressed registered first day cover and an 80 filler value depicting Engels on an (overfranked) envelope imprinted forthe Electricity Board. HUNGARY Hadtappostahivatal Soviet Military Mail 23 May 1919 > . : a “| Tabori Fopostahivatal a: oe . [ Sage a shew tae. Tf 25 May 1919 TABOR! POSTAI LEVELEZOLAP, = & eae er BROSRIQS ” ee ee a ee nv Gili} DINO 2. 5 Crim 2 £ 5 ahd a 919, LE . . im Me? S . | Hivatalos feljegyzé Shag > ot ee Sdn ts oo ~ " ori posta szima:» $000 y =FFCOE >. “> , , 7 sa > {oer > = $99o » A aave Liadara IZ Mss tA ee > La 07 o ¥ Atta g oY i w kK I ¥ whltipine 6 6 6 pgp Peeel Osszesen . . Ang oo K Rendeltetési hely:.. ei Ve “eg BAO 2%: Lakds (uteza stb)t sass cen lc cena a Fon _ esetleg J a apace ge __ _. UEOLSS POSER 2 an ean nnn eae eee Li eee ence eee cccmenncn mae 320 = francs. citmes. a oy! On 10 October, a new series of overprints reading "Northern Army of the Insurgent Hungarians/1921" was issued by the Hejjas Battalion. Examples of these stamps on cover are very elusive, especially of the highest values -- shown above used from Zurany (Zurndorf) on value declared letter for 470,000 korona to Magyarovar -- of which only 100 copies each were printed. WEST HUNGARY rt Kismarton Provisional Overprints 3 October 1921 14 October 1921 Somer d iat Foe et Sep YE 0 KL 2. go = Stary ~ - Ae a © bi ee sang ; re = «Fee oe . = Reema 2 enn dk in wi “=< 3] Kj fe 2 ismarton CY ‘oS oueet bore ja ag] | 122 AjAnlot The final provisionals were issued by the Friedrich Battalion on 12 October. Overprinted "West Hungary/Defense Force" in Hungarian and German. (The words "Orszve" and "Orgland” are abbreviations for Defence Force, i.e. of Organisierter Landschutz in German.) The Michel catalogue states that all "used" copies are cancelled to order, as on the piece above with complete set postmarked before the set was actually issued. However, Ettre reports that a few of the stamps were used on actual mail, particularly in Kismarton (Eisenstadt). WEST HUNGARY Felsoor 17 November 1921 Definitives % WQS “9 > ° > ” pete font x TaN rd COREG Grew et oe ted * “image © LAITABA Sai a s 7 eee > PSELOITaRS Bi AP ESET IS f ae 4. EI TATABANSAG . ~NS [/ SEERRETERIEST EEN, rs 500.8): @ Et erie. SUPORTO: The Lajtabansag authorities ordered a pictorial set to be printed in Vienna. Michel gives the date of issue as 11 November and lists only four of the values as being actually used. Transfer of the territory was completed on 13 November, and Austrian authorities confiscated the remaining stamps on 17 November. The set. including dues. is shown above on a souvenir envelope cancelled to order at Felsoor (Oberwart) to complete the story. ITALY Unlike the Czechoslovaks, Poles and South Slavs, who had to create enurely new nations following World War I. Italy was an already existing entity with its own government and armed forces. It had long desired to annex Austrian lands populated with ethnic Italians and moved swiftly to absorb the new territories as soon as possible after the Austrians signed an armistice on 3 November 1918. Included in the annexed areas were Venezia Giulia, Trentino and parts of Dalmatia. (Later, Italy was able to annex the Free City of Fiume on 12 January 1924.) Forerunners | iain eenen eenae / XY: Wwe d~f 8 xX ib \ y Meee wilt waar’ fast oh df atin hark alta! pretdu$i. Ant caer t . woo, . : m eo gy? ° eneeT ( bp eeceoapopeose w “Ne s viqeneves be + Re NOY el IN TIO Postal card franked with two Austrian Imperial stamps and mailed to Milan. Algund 26 November 1918 Zara 5 February 1919 Austrian Imperial postal card with adhesive to meet rate increase to 10 heller. Meran Hilfspost label issued by the Chamber of Commerce which provided delivery of business mail during one month period from 20 November. PAE Race L, ? Phe wa aed cee ee eee 5 2. hee Tecae Heil ‘FBug: I The stamps of Austria continued to be valid for postage during late 1918 and early 1919 in the areas occupied by Italy. either on their own or in mixed franking with Italian provisionals and definitives. ITALY Posta Militare § First Trentino Provisionals 13 December 1918 Povo 27 December 1918 Censored picture postcard mailed from FPO #8 to Bologna. Unit cachet of the HQ of the 4th Army. Soe eg ET Registered cover (below) showing use of Trentino overprints to OPSAP wep ue oD The first new issue for Italian occupied territory consisted of eighteen values of Austrian stamps overprinted "Kingdom of Italy/Trentino/3 November 1918." These were intended for use primarily in the area around Trento (referred to by the Austrians as the South Tirol). ITALY Trento Second Trentino Provisionals 10 January 1919 Meran 5 February 1919 The Italians came to view it as more politically correct to use their own Stamps instead of old Austrian ones (even with appropriate overprints) in the occupied areas. As a result. a second provisional issue overprinted "Venezia Tridentina” came out on 20 December 1918, augmented by three additional values with bolder overprint and surcharged in heller issued on 1 February 1919. Stamps in Austrian currency were valid until 19 Apmil 1919. ITALY Gries b. Bozen Trentino 27 February 1919 Meran 2 April 1919 S. D. Wassermann Photographie und Optik Meran, Siidtirol go I ta Stefaniepromenade, Pension Neuhaus Som mersaison: Karersee b. Bozen a bhttirian dele —s Meran | 755 BO Rg oe ‘ “4 = koage Seocie.a Adsnine tank OLS o In January 1919 the Italians issued a set for general use in all of the occupied areas. It consisted of surcharges in centisimi and corona without any geographic description. These were all valid for postage until 19 June 1924. ITALY Military Mail in Trentino bes RESERE:10. 9 RIPRODUZIONE NAVE RN OITA NP PUNITE ae, 268 —€270CP wo ) Cds \Comnispoijderiza Pepe AL + ? r ‘ A ‘ ei ’ . > . o e 3)! a ah er hes a aN) gl Sl -ckegmited 7 \ AAS 2 un SSP solo, 3 1 i s @manuete {ll = a aie ES i nte da riprodu Cw Indirizo del iy on } v7ado Re agumento € rone me ne agnia Riparty special £ arma Camp. quad, alterna 5. B t Gu wale Cttewi® ) f hie APL | ell int Enaaut kG; Posta Militare 124 5 January 1919 Posta Militare 15] 3 February 1919 Above items show overprinted stamps used at military stations P.M. | latter reflecting usage on a business cover to Vienna. 4 Bel bay ae a q Ha LOTS 24 in Trento and P.M. 151 in Bolzano. The ITALY Boundary Commission afin Bolzano 31 January 1919 26 May 1919 . af di Bg wil q eT we a, a, x x 7 IDS : a "4 aM ty MS "Zi oy a gee iJ ™~ a, a a t; eel: eee ye : 4 a / f ers By we : pe ft 7 = we ao : =F > 5 “i zi Bolzano -~. it “ef “4 af Zz soni j a wk - t n a : ~~ a Z . . a 1s ered << mmission dB Uetinitarion de la Frontdre entre T Autighe etsitale. — ele or o> >. Gisterreichiseh-ifalignischer Grenzregelungs-AUsseMuss--— USlee eHSENtS) ~ De a, °F z Vt oy Vee e a “Sess a Early in the occupation of the South Tirol, the Italians were actively seeking to define the new boundaries on the most advantageous basis possible. Above examples of mail are from members of both the Austrian and Italian Delegations to the Boundary Commission. Only such examples seen by exhibitor. ITALY First Venezia Giulia Provisionals Trieste 8 December 1918 1 January 1919 10 Ce a ao 9 Mere re pew titcewed, ON - perenne ; ey SoD D2 t2 fe Wia tinna BF. On 14 November, three days after the issue of the first Trentino "Kingdom of Italy/Venezia Giulia/3 November 1918." Trieste, including the Julian Alps and Istria. provisionals, a similar issue appeared overprinted These were intended for use primarily in the area around ITALY Trieste Second Venezia Giulia Provisionals 17 December 1918 1 March 1919 @Om APPR. UFHIOIO RAV. OTAMPA, MAANOD tt Vo a _ The more politically correct overprints also appeared in Venezia Giulia. The second provisional issue overprinted on Italian stamps came out on 6 December 1918, augmented by two additional values surcharged in heller issued on 20 February 1919. Bisect of 20 cent. overprint properly used on picture postcard to Livorno. ITALY Tneste Venezia Giulia 13 February 1919 20 February 1919 y 1 April 1919 FS Se Ceteatrercere we 7 ~. “ . ae eet Ree. Ong ‘ Ach ~antte ette | Hitedberesit, Be © LOEB ARE ry | is - of 24 ! a reer, BLK ne a . Oe pen KK Mita he fo J ca Dy bhae- el eee ¥] (7 (COT Chri op 7" OAC AQ as l Vobean hingbe Y Yetta YU jacd2o Gao (cea aaa oes = Nhe ane eee, ° ‘ The general overprinted issue without geographic description and surcharged in centesimi and corona also appeared in Venezia Giulia. ITALY Military Mail in Venezia Giulia Posta Militare 53 27 December 1918 Posta Militare 87 12 January 1919 a - ~ — > F S é & ~ Jf _seeemereeneneemecns f NS EArt ch aetlans nce Seswlas acne EARLS eae ae Se Ere . SF | i “ye 3 ARN NGS jes pi ae a ¢ HF / No Aw | fl; - Es TUCK'S POSTCARD if 3 = GARTE POSTALE. S at oe ’ S SE fy Appointment | ————$§$—— be . pte tk = } x aa (nae: (For Ane : ff N = a a 27 8 Jet Lar cari! Hunk, ef F /y H 4 mee EZ o ang : 3 4 ( y/ OO Oe 9 Ont " © gt he Laem Ss Carle weeeclore, i ers oe we. Kin rtedte Lr or, se ¥% eet See Le ne eel A Carn Nhe! Oe oh SB Eee we te ae he, ee Diaz « Siereto ? = & Lb S (MM, bereerwrse- th Ge | Pewadate «a wedon anele pase! : Z thw Ct alison, f c Vette / af A fe —, PV aaa Gad 26°C S bse, oF Printed in England Cou Nn : As Italian troops moved to occupy the liberated territories, some of the overprinted stamps were used in the field post offices. Above items show such usage through P.M. 53 (11th Army Corps in Gorizia) and P.M. 87 (26th Army Corps in Pola). ITALY Trieste Centro Military Mail in Venezia Giulia 21 February 1919 - : Aviazione Ra. Marina/Trieste 4 March 1919 “CARTOLINA POS < Bory (CARTE POST)BIE ed .. TRVAAZIONE TR. MARIE oo) =POSTA AERE, DIREZIONE DEL SERVIZI_ AEROS = Sighs mete a Gaels cen ee In the newly occupied territory, roads were bad and ports were mined, so there no good means of sending important communications. As a result, the Royal Navy Air Service inaugurated a Transadriatic air mail route, which functioned from November 1918 to late 1919. Special boxed cachets of the RNAS were applied to such mail. Note the additional marking "Headquarters of the Royal Seaplane Station/Trieste" on the official cover. =: = a a tn dae een ge pene ca me ME ee eee ed ae een oe sere eee ame FS) ms cede et Ne ee wont ITALY Occupation of Austria > v on wt fe tore oD “4 Zz 7. we 08, ZORICH Aim 6 WP, rns & a“ SE x ‘ Se R . SY ‘ “oer Zz ong. 7. Prey _@- “ye FR? be go “ wie . 27 2, Posta Militare 2 17 February 1919 Posta Militare 87 18 June 1919 ot uustverlar: Albin Sassitz, oe aS ke NQ a) ~ a CS SC UN ERAS, In addition to occupying the Trentino and Venezia Giulia, Italian troops moved north into Austria proper. Upper card sent from P.M. 2 in Landeck, North Tirol. Lower card from P.M. 87 in Villach, Carinthia. ITALY Posta Militare 151 Occupation of Austria 14 March 1919 Posta Militare 124 8 June 1919 ap Ae ‘ Ig. akad. maiife Jos. Douby .7 Salon Prague. Saree ~£-9 -S bona, S = . , s : 5 P.M. 151 operated in Austria from November 1918 to November 1919. The card above was sent from Innsbruck, the capital of the Tirol. P.M. 124 was in Austria from November 1918 to September 1919. Lower card has the cachet of the "Telegraph Service of the Italian Military Armistice Commission/Vienna." ITALY Posta Militare 124 Occupation of Austria 13 July 1919 6 pal | x08 ( otoelt aR tp alps a. Pf OGPSELLSCHAPT F Gieaparscrt 1S SEES L EST LEE SL LOO x ite SO a oo = a ina do | RIFE, 1 —_—- eee caexes Gagne 7 In April 1919 a special semi-official vignette was printed for the use of the Italian Military Mission in Vienna to prepay fees on airmail frown back home on Italian planes. These were affixed to letters and cancelled with a two- line marking "Aspern Airfield." Only 42 copies of this label were issued. The sender's address on the back of the cover above is noted as "Italian Armistice Mission Caproni, Aspem Field, Vienna, Austria." AVYOGKY® ‘ [ AINA 4 ITALY aS ne € Occupation of Dalmatia 4 Peony Ue January 192] CARTOLINA POSTALE ITALIANA IN FRANCHIGIA sw congferaygnn DELLA» N iX 8 si i S i aN ‘ N YA N Yi & aN Nas WW oY NS 6 Re _ » oy . & XS ya Ya ie NS > g y 0 YY LLLP PL @ 3 ENS oe Lorene en tera en a a SSA SAS RAEI ASSESS SRS TET 3 0C‘ oOo ee co a: : og . Bes Sat ne ae : 5 : Z o LS OVERNO D = herp “EH DELLE Isoig BANG 2h aoe SGD ! Coanome | Nome Nave Silurante 7 S St eaters ' i 1 { } i ma 7 — : fF - eee ve Mindful of the conflicting claims of the Slavs to the Adriatic coastline, Italy moved quickly to occupy the ports of Curzola, Sebenico and Zara. Only after the peace settlement did the Italians withdraw from the first two cities: only its claim to Zara and a small hinterland was upheld. The naval postal card has the cachet of the "Government of Dalmatia, the Dalmatian Islands and Curzola." The cover has a similar imprinted return address and a cachet reading "Naval High Command/Dalmatia." ITALY Curzola Occupation of Dalmatia 12 March 1920 NE EO BIE BEA TALLY A eS Sebenico 28 July 1919 Zara 28 January 1919 ~*~ 3x mor ee: SIAL U Sonn eS 7 ie cone ETSI RAE g cy ‘ 3 a mn A. Gilardi & Figlio, Zara : : Special postmarks inscribed "Italian Posts" and the names of the larger Dalmatian towns were introduced and used until the final territorial agreement was completed. (The Curzola card was sent from a sailor on the destroyer R.C.T. Fucilere.) 4042 ITALY Curzola Occupation of Dalmatia 23 December 1920 1S TI OR Ry eC reg, Maree Te TUN shee oS mee oe ee see Lyons ae Pa MF ewe 4 i — a Pe M4 5576 | Koréula—c rola aan f =x RIZZO PST He augrasou AR -¥ia, mumero di casa ‘Ulica, hisna, St Strasse,” Hausnuiimer - Ultima posta (Provinciay* Zadnja posta idageiay, 2 Letzte Post (Land). - Gli spazi marcati vanno riempiti dal mittente. — Debelo obroblijene dela izpolni odpo-| : siljatelj- — Die stark umrabmten Teile sind yor Absender- suscufillen. a oS dates , a ‘Taxnamek podtne odpravne smeri ing Bnos, Sa sPeatieliversins “ Parcel card with block of 10 of one corona stamps on front (with additional biock of 9 on reverse) sent from Curzola (Korcula) to Veglia (Krk): both of these Adriatic islands were turned over to the South Slay state after the Treaty of Rapallo. An extraordinary franking with large multiples of the highest value overprints. ITALY Postal Express Service No. 975 American Forces 10 July 1919 Posta Militare 92-A ea 335 a a b 1914 2s . : saa er’ a aaa aa VL) 27 March 1919 CLEC Fe | jr - wae APES Pray pgs ge oa Bret “ ; CY CLOBO e HMGOE 88S ee Spa Jo POP! ~ ree 7 eRe Sd AE tind f o> fF age Jo he : : . SITE “3 | a a ; 2LePF ~ » Mase Ms Pid OOS tee ge Yio Yo POPE: x 2tty ee . : 7 S227, / fOC CE BoC ttd G2 a ttt) Ke FYFE “agp ee i POG! WO Oa fF GE AE GOW BOG bile 29207 eee BAe OBE off E Pat PEO Tag by eon Caw J peo “HA ED 8D He \ ‘ aN bli! ba FE “ After the Armistice, a small number of U.S. forces were sent to Trieste. Postcard above sent by a lieutenant serving with the U.S. Food Administration. It was carried by the courier service to Paris where it was postmarked at APO 975. Navy detachments were stationed in the former Austrian naval bases at Trieste and Pola. Lower postcard is datelined "Pola, Istria, ex-Austria” and the return address reads "c/o U. S. Naval Port Office, Trieste.” The FPO postmark was assigned to the Italian 61st Division. ITALY Trieste British Forces 17 February 1919 British Naval Transport Offices operated in a number of major ports in Italy, expediting the inflow of supplies. Such activities were extended to Trieste after the withdrawal of the Austrians. Cachets of these units are scarce and sought after by collectors of naval mail. FIUME Fiume was the primary Hungarian port on the Adriatic. When Creatia seceded from Hungary on 29 October 1918, Croatian volunteers moved in and occupied Fiume. They remained in control until 17 November, when an Interallied occupation force arrived. The Allies then administered the city until 12 September 1919, when the adventurer-poet Gabriele d'Annunzio staged a coup and took charge. Under the Treaty of Rapallo signed in November 1920, Fiume was designated as a Free City; it was later annexed by Italy on 12 January 1924. Forerunners 3 Fiume 17 November 1918 “©E. CORENICH - FIUME =~ 7, ©. Mia Fratelli Branchetta 78 “<= i Uftic! Anfotmazioni ed ‘Incassl : : a : | wh fiviormation ‘asso-Bi , WBappreséntanze. Ma A, Le me Vertretungen. IFICATO WR mb 1 eget \ Net A few of the Croatian "SHS Hrvatska" overprints are known used in Fiume on 16 and 17 November 1918, just prior to the arrival of the Allied troops. This presents an unexplained anomaly as the overprinted stamps were supposedly not issued until the 18th. Nevertheless, the cover shown above is backstamped for arrival at Latisana in Udine Province on the 20th. FIUME Fiume Provisional Overprints 4 February 1919 10 March 1919 re Se ee ae eee As occurred elsewhere in the liberated territories, the old stamps of the Monarchy continued to be valid for postage for a considerable time into 1919, either on their own or in mixed franking with overprints. Fiume 29 March 1919 FIUME Provisional Overprints iT NUpAPH YoUzZ9 i (auorsbiamap 1p oma), :(epayayy Ispyortepuoy) ® # oe # ‘ ZL r(orapy) °° . y ” é zt dv Pz4.eppupa equauengnsa oenoyprey 9 07197900] nLazuMiUE tz 9.t9a3.108 .t3]00 1p DDaad 16 sO}UOd SJ ISPAL OJVYSVATO re i (aymra ‘ eperwoay ap a orfinep a0 Auyayn sa yaspzsofsow sopuyuayy ! | outs sp nodg4 easy | ‘uzsduu 204100 N19 0 it duu sy oy pp ossdusys) my TUIPT QIAO, gposud a vse} Dy 4p afO4v ayuaaaaLe Jap 3Ueore DAIU OPUSO][O ZV U UBNUL, , ‘fra ¢ YG 0 5 ce a oO. KN - aes el 7 ? owes; ony aquDjeat — opm ugpan, =a pun Opin) aa oun Pass % WC = “ OOEaI * ¢ “iseitne ‘ot = Sal 10a J ~ ete, errs me epee me ne er aaN Diagn, La rave fy apply SEs, Re ee ee eRe nam Denese mm enn seen anne eee nnn man Telegram to Trieste franked with four different corona values, including the elusive 10 corona, among others. FIUME Posta Militare 83 First Definitives 16 March 1919 ~ Fiume 9 June 1919 ARR, Postex, AF comnyno conro aonueszzone | INTERELESTO 1 Fl ‘ A i? % t partons ee awe de Nx 4 , Ay 5: , ) | BLD. te, 00 a chee fovea | A Cannan tnt boa tt bane Lorin | On 30 January 1919 the Allies issued a pictorial set inscribed "Fiume" with symbolic designs. These stamps were valid for postage until 30 April 1920. Military cover above has cachet on reverse from "Headquarters Interallied Occupation Corps in Fiume." Lower cover is inbound to the President of the Interallied Commission. FIUME Posta Militare 83 Military Mail 5 February 1919 23 April 1919 UFEICIO Peeacea. , Réponse Gioacchino-Saraceni : ‘ 0.3. LRAT : TORE : “ROMA Se me ie Me emi ES Se gle , . Se sists . ° 7 ~ . - oe a te : — , stitd . = MB dee conzann gO @ ai QUARTIER ‘GENER! CES ho eB tee te oY - PLOTS: <6 AUTONOMO OT i ~ “eg 2 - ale, ae A DDres2rs - Cananslic” os Dae any Gop @ogeupazion? inte: ela Gr ‘ /arnaite YBa an i As nyt ao eowmrsiade, a Oo, \ ? ede tf ——=—" —~ ad Italian troops entered Fiume on 5 November 1918. However, due to threats from the loca] militia, this activity was conducted on behalf of the "Interallied Occupation Corps for Fiume,"” which was reflected in the cachets used on the soldiers’ mail. FIUME Fiume D'Annunzio Definitives 29 March 192] 9 May 1921 ee en a att Ro eee me a ae Qu 2 4 Le. After the coup d'etat, new stamps were issued with the portrait of D'Annunzio. A set of these with overprint "Provisional Government" was issued on 2 February 1921 and was valid for postage until 21 May 1922. FIUME Posta Militare/Fiume d'Ttalia Military Issues 12 September 1920 Fiume d'Italia/Posta Militare os 10 December 1920 i ic LD.¢ ! Military set used on registered cover on the only day of validity. pea Perens esd | Bea pep a baee Three different proof overprints (all capital letters) of the "Regency" issue used on local registered cover. A set of four stamps commemorating the first anniversary of D'Annunzio's coup was issued on 12 September 1920 for use by the Legionnaires on that day. In November, D'Annunzio proclaimed himself as Commandant of the Italian Regency of the Carero when his troops occupied the islands of Arbe and Veglia. 9 December 1920 16 December 1920 Fiume d'Italia/Posta Militare ¥ FIUME Military Issues ge , ae | =f “¥ s ~ “In 3 ao 1% . : eS do oO - he AA “0 ® Ne ard ard pa 1: ia eo = 5 1° ‘ag ‘ 1 @. { & , (XQ ot Ls Py vet "fay | oo rd { : 4 I By - e gi hed : pb ee, hd § Fd . ar ae ¢ -—_ RY Re . > : een | MACMee eo ; ‘is 4 2s 2 tho iy © \" W 7 a ; ’ Cy 20 November 1920 and y of the Carnero was issued on : g the Italian Regenc > ge until 5 January 1921. The overprinted set commemoratin was valid for posta FIUME Arbe Military Issues 28 November 1920 : = = Veglia Arbe= Rab 2 2A ER 26 November 1920 vile del Distretto Politico di Véglia : - * - @ Wi misSariato, Ci ¢ ; wait ; - ; . ac aan brant ZS “yt cobs SAS: alec ts Fa => ry SS PES! RRS whee bia A small number of sets overprinted initially for the Regency were re-overprinted "Arbe" and "Veglia" and issued on 13 November 1920 for use on the newly captured islands. However. due to pressure from the Italian government, the Legionnaires were forced to evacuate the islands, restoring the authority of the South Slav state. FIUME Bnitish Naval Transport Office/Fiume British Forces 26 March 1919 Army Post Office L.14 18 October 1919 “45% wave a Covers shown above attest to the presence of British Army and Navy personnel in Fiume during the period of the Interallied occupation. Examples are quite elusive. FIUME Tresor et Postes 520 French Forces 13 January 1919 Poste aux Armees *_* 9 March 1919 “24 Following the armistice with Austria-Hungary, Allied troops occupied Fiume. the main Hungarian port on the. Adriatic on 5 November 1918 and remained there until 13 September 1919, the day after the d'Annunzio coup.. ROMANIA Unlike the Czechoslovaks, Poles and South Slavs, who had to create entirely new nations following World War I, Romania was an already existing entity with its own government and armed forces. Nevertheless, it faced great administrative problems in absorbing huge new territories, including Bucovina from Austria as well as the Banat and Transylvania from Hungary. For the most part, these lands were simply occupied by the Romanian army at the end of 1918 and then officially annexed later in accordance with the peace treaties. Forerunners Kolozsvar 29 September 1919 Nagy- Varad 8 March 1920 Old royal Hungarian imprinted envelope in mixed franking with Romanian overprint. Domnu lui S. Bayer Hotel New-York Cluj ey, Zap eae ra as fy. + LEVELEZO- LAP er Bp oe Lf ee as eet .: CPL ‘8 Hungarian Republic es — fi Losers _ Ges CHE postal card uprated 4. with 5 bani Romanian Seber overprint. Censored at on yee “0 2h Oradea Mare. Lowen yer77 f eS ow lesions Ah - a Ae teat, £ 7 a) Seon Sed p10 Magyar Gilami nyomda, Budapest, 1919, ~~ aaPee teen rat ee oS The stamps of Hungary continued to be valid for postage in Transylvania. either on their own or in mixed franking with the Romanian provisionals and definitives. ROMANIA Arad Transylvania Provisionals 1919 Nagyszeben 3 August 1919 AUREL RUSSU ARAD str. RomANULUI t/a, (ROMANIA). “ See ae re kK c wo m7 Fy 7 a eo ES: ae (e442 ‘ aS ‘ Ban LDL LE - ADLAES R s | Hagyszeben 1 Nsz1| 874 In July 1919, the Romanian authorities began to issue provisional stamps for occupied Transylvania, with the overprints inscribed "Romanian Administration PTT." Two different printings were made, which differ in whether the Romanian currency designation is in mixed upper and lower case (Oradea printing) or in all capital letters (Cluj printing). ROMANIA Czermowitz Bucovina Forerunners 2 November 1918 epnencenmmnlblnons a x At the time of the armistice. Romanian troops occupied Bucovina, which was the easternmost province of Austria. As in other occupied areas, stamps of the Monarchy continued in use. In the case of Bucovina. which issued no provisional overprints, this period extended until the fall of 1919 when Romanian stamps were introduced. ROMANIA Bucovina isterium in Liquidation . te re fe” — ion 15 B G14 ; - Shs wos iid Ne AW ae ir Radeckiplatz - a Czemowitz 21 September 1919 4 June 1920 (HotelHUnguria I1.Steck) | a ent, ote it Q \s a? as we Cegedete t 5 Sse Scrie . par Ay 4 * Mumai_cal id fi tt ge Wea 6, aced, We Fe Pie | x -- fils SS , ‘ ue Romania was awarded the territory of Bucovina under the Treaty of St. Germain signed by Austria on 10 September 1919. Shortly thereafter, regular Romanian postage was introduced for use there. Items shown above still indicate use old Austrian postmark of Czernowitz (Cernauti) and registry labels but Romanian censorship cachets were applied. 4 palaces OFrlucrd® Sgasqet PDT ecciee iy t { ! | i ROMANIA Temesvar Banat Provisionals 23 October 1919 31 October 1919 Registered cover sent to Kolozvar with set of 17 August overprints. kimtetes Te ee] TR i] Tanesar 3] ——<—<—<$<—$—<—— * ee =| st —s "= 3 korona overprint a7 in mixed franking a i i 1 = . fe * 4 with earlier Serbian wa p30 é'ipfant erie | Overprints on a Sy 5 ‘ se registered cover to — “<¢ is. t s : Paris Note the é _¢ en congé circular cachet = - " ~ r= ™ Cenzura Romana NE Timisoara.” aeat Se X 3 —— = & Ss = “3° es “Ss XS mn = ; On 17 August 1919, just three days before the Romanian authorities arrived. the local officials in Temesvar (Timisoara) issued one last set of provisional overprints. These remained valid for postage until 15 March 1920. ROMANIA Herkulesfurdo Banat Forerunners 26 November 1919 Temesvar 7 December 1919 og Wee. aoe JV Dee "g BOL26 4 Meee oT 2 nD aoe | SP ef FORE TS Royal Hungarian ; 7 postal card uprated with "Republic" Overprints then censored at Oradea. / at Fe a “ : a j 7.8 BA Sree te "ne at as ‘ a8 ’ “Te es See > e <. : ai s eet - 2 We ot ae By foe LS oer, dtlami ayomda. Budapest, 1918, ge *., . . 7 | § : 2G, 5 Gant a cast Seren inn ata tee a ante enadbe ta tate omen aE @ ally cual ed Ses AS NE Vesper) oy EES Waa Cover to U-S. franked with Royal Hungarian stamps, including wartime semi-postals. Note the circular cachet "Cenzura Romana Timisoara." F The Romanian authorities permitted the use of old Hungarian stamps during the latter part of 1919 and into the following year. These were accepted for postage whether issued by the Monarchy, the Republic or mixed usage. ROMANIA Debreczen First Debreczen Provisionals 22 November 1919 Hajdudorog ag ~~ Ty oo, 29 December 1919 Qa gyde Stenwiny liasasdy | —_ IQ paieg A ” ( | se * . (Ara 1 finer “UTAL LEVELEZOLAP, = g& oe, . . y . / Be, OL, SEL!) » Sher"? ELS LLY GG fF ye, OIItOLOE | 7 a loxystsc® részére : : Er resze See, Een a - In addition to the annexed areas, the Romanian army also occupied large parts of eastern and central Hungary. For the area around Debreczen, about 90 different stamps were provided by overprinting various Hungarian issues with "Romanian Occupation Zone PTT" in an oval. These remained valid for postage until the Romanians withdrew on 20 March 1920. Note two different Romanian censorship cachets with spelling "Debretin." ; 4 ssn geal SiR TRUSS LEE Raa a Debreczen ROMANIA Second Debreczen Provisionals 27 December 1919 me Cee te ee Ty 17 January 1920 P pit snnern sence | NL e Xy Z ; Debreczen,gy, 7 | 2 aoe oe 9 Lh eo A a, Yl) qs Somewhere the Romanians obtained a supply of unissued stamps of the Hungarian Republic and overprinted them with "Romanian Occupation Zone PTT" ina circle. This issue is rarely seen on covers. ROMANIA Field Post & Telegraph Office/Budapesta Occupation of Budapest 16 September 1919 Censura Postul/Budapesta 12 October 1919 Moving against the Soviet Hungarians, Romanian troops occupied Budapest on 3 August 1919. This caused the Bolshevik administration to collapse and. after a brief time, the Hungarian National government in Szeged was able to move back to the capital when the Romanians withdrew on 14 November. The philatelic evidence of the Romanian occupation is sparse. but they did have a special military cancellation and censor marking as shown. ROMANIA Field Post & Telegraph Office Kolomea Provisionals 20 July 1919 Kolomyja 19 August 1919 pes i : W fs ef islmozgny Pan bog h nite ae . } 2. ee - 4 For a brief period, Romanian forces occupied part of eastern Galicia around Kolomea, known as Pocutia. In this area. Austrian stamps were hand overprinted "C.M.T. (Termitorial Military Command)" and a new value. These stamps were issued on 28 June 1919 and were valid only until the Romanians withdrew in favor of Poland on 29 August 1919. ROMANIA Peczkowo Kolomea Provisionals 2 July 1919 Kolomyja 19 August 1919 x H KOPALNIA NAPTY BERLA LANTNERA | ae ” SLOBODZIE RUNGURSKIEJ. fe 4 ‘ ont Te Sa el . \ &. Molomea 1 hi 759 Additional examples of the Romanian occupation stamps for Pocutia. shown used on local Postcard and in international registration service. CZECHOSLOVAKIA As World War I ended. the first part of the Hapsburg Empire to break away was Czechoslovakia, which declared its independence on 28 October 1918. This new nation was considered a successor state of Austria-Hungary and consisted of five distinct parts. Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia had been parts of the Austrian Empire, while Slovakia and Ruthenia had been included in the Kingdom of Hungary. Forerunners Picture postcard mailed from Slovakia on second day of independence. Cred, Leclinliiel ace, fgie --- Verlags Frauz Schuster, Wx --—-—-—- ++ @ = a, 6 GS mee 7 ae A CRO ommacte 4 HS Bmx 28 October 1918 Nyitra 29 October 1918 Picture postcard mailed from Bohemia on the first day of Czechoslovakian independence. Such usage is highly sought after by specialists. #SIR JOSHUA REWIOLDS, geb.16. MS1723 zu mis z (Devonshire), gest. 23, Juli 1792 zu London, Schite talien, ‘.Neben Romney einer der besten lischi eet ildnismaler des 18, Jahrhunderts. “soll. fiber 2000 Bildnisse gemalt haben. ey y x a Sh OR nEhomas Hudson in London, weitergebildet in Er soll iiber The stamps of the Monarchy continued to be valid for postage in Czechoslovakia until 28 February 1919, either on their own or in mixed franking with the new Czechoslovak definitives. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Praha Semi-Official Issues 25 November 1918 oon oom BS s comsg oa nm een ee eyes RS Ore vee 21 December 1918 Cover with the 10 haleru value of the first (un- overprinted) scout issue. Each item was signed by the scout handling it. tea eb LAAN AR RRR RR Cover with 20 haleru value of the Overprinted issue used on the only day of its validity. Such covers are highly sought after. The most famous of the local issues were the two denominatio sanctioned by National Committee for use onl functionaries which were delivered by boy sc and Parliament from 7 to 25 November. arrival of President Masaryk in Prague, w ns inscribed "Czech Scout Posts." These were y on messages between its headquarters and certain government out couriers to the railway station, telephone exchange, City Hall A second issue, consisting of 600 sets Overprinted to commemorate the as used only on 21 December. Listed as "semi-official" by Michel CZECHOSLOVAKIA Local Issues Strakonice 14 November 1918 Bmo 24 January 1919 So-called "Budweis" overprints eee SAIN WATTS fe 1918. here used : Ss postal card. Private overprints used on special delivery cover from Bmo 1 in Moravia. Backstamped for receipt at Brno 2 the following day. ES tibeen fithe idee CO ie tedgde 70 Some local authorities and even private groups "jumped the gun” in the rush to use Czechoslovak stamps instead of the old Imperial ones. Although such overprints were not officially sanctioned, a number of them were used temporarily for the franking of mail. were already prepared on 1 November Shown on special delivery CZECHOSLOVAKIA Praha First Definitives Used in Bohemia-Moravia 24 January 1919 First Definitives Used in Slovakia " Kassa 7 April 1919 Te eS Sey : - CET: : - * eon > — Mo 72ZttB- ety T?Lt o- y ©} meee SE , . a re SR POsTOVA POUKAZKA na 5% K— 5, 3h . oo. “ Miesto L, 80 ar af Lh Cc .- ea Wlica, Sislo domu re mer Of ?osledna posta (zem) ‘ Lock Hrubo oramované nech vyplni odosielatel/ Prijaté pod dislom Petiatka okresna Potpr stového Uradnika || For propaganda reasons, the government was highly desirous of getting new Czech stamps into circulation. and the first two values (5 and 10 haleru) of the definitive stamps designed by Alfons Mucha were issued on 18 December 1918. Three additional values (3, 20 and 25 haleru) were prepared by year-end. and many additionai denominations came out during 1919 and 1920. All of these depicted the Hradcany, palace of the former kings of Bohemia, and the St. Vitus Cathedral. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Jablonkow, Slask. First Definitives Used in Silesia 30 August 1920 First Definitives Used in Ruthenia Seredne 4 August 1920 Note the use of new bilingual registry label. (A majority of the inhabitants of this area are ethnic Ukrainians.) While most Czechoslovakian mail originated in Bohemia. Moravia and Slovakia, covers can also be obtained from Silesia and Ruthenia (also known as Carpatho-Ukraine). As is apparent from the use of old postmarking devices nearly two vears after independence. events moved rather slowly in these areas. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Provisional Issue Kral. Vinohrady 27 December 1919 Karlin 29 December 1919 pda KERN STN ANA, Because of the circumstances involving their issue, including the 50% premium over postal value, most of the covers’ franked with provisional stamps show an obvious philatelic influence. Kr. Vinohrady 1 1034 specie Registered cover with 10 koruna high value of the Overprinted set. Overfranked but very elusive. Unlike the other successor states, Czechoslovakia did not officially overprint the old Imperial stamps in the early days of the Republic. However, demonetized stamps with a face value of 7 million koruna were sent in to the postal authorities from post offices throughout the country. In order to not waste this potentially valuable asset and to meet the clamor from the philatelic community, 64 different Austrian and 55 Hungarian stamps were overprinted "Czechoslovak Posts 1919" and placed on sale 12 December 1919 at the philatelic window in Prague at a 50% premium over face. The Overprints were valid for postage until 31 January 1920. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Pizen Provisional Issue 31 December 1919 Praha 31 January 1920 The franking on the adjacent cover includes one overprinted postage due that was treated as a regular postage stamp in this period. ; ff) « < bo 25) a eae. ~ aE ey ~ Ss. Registered cover from Prague used on the last date of postal validity for the overprints. OB aha EG a8 Overprinted Austrian and Hungarian stamps were valid for postage throughout Czechoslovakia. Thus, although the above covers are franked with overprinted Hungarian issues, they originated in Pilsen and Prague, cities located in former Austrian territory. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Occupation of Hungary Ceskoslovenska Polni Posta 75 17 May 1919 A large portion of the Czechoslovak army (including other volunteers) was deployed in the south in an effort Hungary. In the spring of 1919, the Czech troops pene May. However, a Hungarian counterattack started in mid- -May a Bhd tie pid glen aol anand ese hake take g's Ls Bs ees chet ae oe ia aot davon - Picture postcard with Field Post Office cancel sent by a soldier during the temporary occupation of Miskolc, a city located nearly 40 miles inside Hungary. Examples of identifiable mail from such locations are very scarce. trated we legionnaires returned from France and Italy, Sokols and to establish favorable new borders between Slovakia and ll into ethnic Hungary, occupying Miskolc on 2 nd successfully cleared the area. * CZECHOSLOVAKIA Military Mail | | Levelezé-Lap \ rh Sal ‘ in Henrlk, ‘tel. std px CESKO-S; pM qonkt z Tage Sep Iglo 11 January 1919 Pozsony 26 April 1919 Bratislava 5 July 1919 A temporary rectangular field postmark was ‘used in Bratislava for only a one-month period in the summer of 1919. From the outset, the new borders between Slovakia and Hungary were in dispute. As early as 2 November 1918 the first Czechoslovak troops were sent from Bohemia and Moravia into Slovakia to enforce the claims. Mail sent by soldiers not located near a field post office was normally cancelled with the datestamp of the nearest town. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Ceskoslovenska Polni Posta 75 Military Mail 5 February 1919 - fx Ceskoslovenska Polni Posta 46 \ f Pe 17 March 1919 Ceskoslovensko Polni Posta 22 10 July 1919 My oh, os walle py ~ h+ ~ = ; ; se : ‘ va ad per e f. i “> da OLDRICH CIHELKA: 86 OM OTE - Narodni kroje — Béhmische Nationaltrachten - ,,% nye fo Czes. kroje narodowe . fi : itr “Tp Po } 3 ’ ; / Les costumes nationales tchéques Fe int le d's ; _ Ueutc, Hapoqunit Kpoit ‘ ae * : oo eee ee ae Se er ae Vf, fi eoweuree 15(5 2 : Lk / [rr eypemeiaten ple)! Sale d I ee | - : Pale B Lig. le /furvuuovain! btdd Todo - dried : “ | e) Wel. — Mpirile (Vy po wl ) védvo 1911/21 Ba, Schwarcz Vilmos kiadésa. Tory The first three field post offices were established on 1 January 1919. Of these, #22 was set up for the troops of Colonel Sembera at Kosice, #46 was for the troops of Colonel Hrbensky in Uzhorod and #75 was established at Czechoslovak army HQ at Kosice. As suggested by the types of cachets used on the mail, many of the soldiers were former legionnaires who had served in France or Italy and brought their unit markings home with them. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Military Mail Polni Posta 14 19 March 1920 Cesko-Slovenska Polni Posta 38 reat melope ere (isi Pied svatebr¢) esic 29 April 1920 {Baraseudt: Auf lichten Héhen. Na svétlych vysindch. L’aspettazione. ete “SN e. e — SS , & Se To | FBR ee re a . So. s | 3 oe > = as Oo. . Se : \ 2. 1 Se x = = - a 1 ss A i Pp- a : Y s_ ec. = ee GS e, es ee os os S o 2 eae S&S 2 3 os: SL a = $ ¢ “e° 2. = 2 ,er. es " & c. Te 2 § Sf] eR, OOS fa Ss ve — >, eo =. oo BRA S| Te bee. | ‘mG? go get. * “Sie Sy ‘3 ‘ mom S = ee e -3 - = ~ c Se — foe © Pv) y 1 LPO PPO PD DIDO wed Po 2.0... ft. “on t. Ae " * Sa. Be) ATO Sat Additional FPOs were opened as necessary, with a total of twenty being created. One of the last of these was #14, opened at Uzhorod on 30 August 1919. However, the signing of an armistice with Hungary on 24 June 1919 meant a reduction of military activity and less business for the field post offices. Thus, on 8 July 1920, all of the FPOs in Slovakia and Ruthenia were closed down. CZECHOSLOVAKIA American Forces A small number of American officers was assigned to various supervisory duties in Prague. No APO was to be established in Czechoslovakia, so the mail was carried to Paris by the official U.S. courier service, where it was turned over to the military post office for processing. Less than a dozen such covers are recorded. Postal Express Service No. 975 18 August 1919 29 August 1919 : . 2 o.oo, A. Brauxman, a5. CAN CONSULAR SERVICE c = ss e+e, srague, f J ey oo CC abet ad i = “ if 7 , a Lf we 4, - Mrs. E, H. Braukman, 1559 Steele 3treet, ae Denver, Colorado. 7 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Amsdorf b. Haida American Relief Organizations 21 October 1919 wrens Praha 4 September 1920 Naplite ve vlasinim z4fmu obé adresy zcela SID _ 2¥etelné. Beide Adressen sind in elgenem Inieresse leser- fo lich zu schreiben. ~ < UPOZORNENTI. Hodlé-li prijemce této dopisnice aagiath pence = soukromé osobé v Ceskoslovenské republice, necht odevzda tuto dopisnici kterékoliv bance ve svem bydlisti. Pokud tato banka jest? neni pougena, dluzno ji upozorniti, Ze penézni z4- . silky do Ceskoslovenské republiky obstariva The American Relief Administration for Czechoslovakia 115 Broadway, New York Cily. . 8 NOTICE. This card is issued by the Prague Branch (7 Mi- kuldska, Prague) of the American Relief Administration ope- rating under act of Congress of Feb. 24, 1919, Its purpose » as officially authorized, is to allow individuals in Czechoslo- vakia to communicate with individuals in the U.S. The-U. S. banks whose clients desire to send personal remittances to’. _ezechoslovak individuals can obtain. full information from, | _ -The American Relief Administration for Czecho- . ‘slovakia, 115 Broadway, New York City. a® _ ZUR BEACHTUNG., Falls der Empfanger dieser Postkarte an eine in der Cechoslowakischen Republik befindliche Privat- person Geld zu versenden beabsichtigt, muss er’ dieselbe Zeincr Bank seines Wohnortes iibergeben. Ist diese Bank noch . Snicht infermiert, muss ihr mitgeteilt werden, dass Geldiendun-: |- tigen nach der Cechoslowakischen Republik The American _ } Relief . Administration for Cz.“ : 2 ¢ Broadway, New York City besorgt? . S lichen Instruktionen iber Verlangen ert! 2 . ae We a et c ore == ‘ ~, BYES Pebervarays fy NN As in other areas of Central Europe, the American relief organizations provided food, medicine and other humanitarian aid. The American Relief Administration was prominent in this effort. Note the special ARA postal stationery printed to make it easy to communicate with friends and relatives in the United States. CZECHOSLOVAKIA U.S. Army MPES 702 American Relief Organizations 7 August 1919 Jagerndorf 27 May 1920 pcs Dei = <8 pm 2 MITTEE G7 m4 Vig WN, ‘ - if, Jae 45 ah. Tf te riends of Citizens of Czechoslo- *.pakiain America: . - a” can Relief? Administration hae : Oe food warehouses’ throughout icici Saodken for the general relief of the copie, Yourcan vuy at banks in the Unites States an “american Relief— Administration . Warehouse F6od Draft and send the draft : ifo any one-in Czecho-Slovakia whom you “ “< desire ta: heln,-Your friend or relative in ‘| s¥ Czecho-Slovakia can. present the draft at the “2 nearest American Relief: Warehouse and re- “S.ceive the equipdlent value of ‘the draft in “American flour, milk, ‘fats and other foods. “This .system insures -delivery. Individual | ackages from America are _areatly delayed “and are often lost. The American Relief Ad- ministration is nnio fecding daily 500.000 chil- dren in Czecho-Slovakia as a gift of the “ American people, hut the parents of these children need your help, Help these people in their distress and send a Food Drait quickly to the address given on the other side. For further information anply to your own or the: nearest hank or tao the American Re- jt Se 115, Srey New York, i The U.S. Food Administration also had a mission in Prague. Cover from a lieutenant in the mission was sent by military pouch to Paris where it entered the mails. Postcard was used as propaganda for the ARA program to provide food from its warehouse if appropriate payment were made by a resident of the U.S. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Mission Militaire Francaise/Prague French Military Mission April 1919 December 1919 \ " ~ : x. * e . . : a uF : “e * a lig a a e ee MISSION MILITAIRE FRANCAISE =) 7 5 Aes DE PRAGUE 3. or PS Rew Re 7 J. B, BaTGLISRa « ‘ oS, g ceca hoa! faut le : Ye - OAL | ms St Ei Lb Ade y obeb In connection with the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, a French Military Mission was sent to organize the new army to defend the new frontiers. Various unit cachets were used, as shown above. ' ee = f CZECHOSLOVAKIA Mission Francaise en Boheme French Military Mission June 1919 Chef de l'Aviation Slovaquie November 1919 Chef ce PAviation mint dé “Slovaquite.’ | a : to ae [LE KC. anaes, oS Although no field post offices were available, the above military post cards from Prague and Bratislava attest to the presence of French aviation advisors to the Czechoslovak forces in Bohemia and Slovakia. CZECHOSLOVAKIA Mission Militaire Francaise a Prague French Military Mission 16 July 1919 January 1920 Exvéditeur: Capitaine ‘frangaise Saye NOT Monsieur J.U.F. DUBOIS. c/o TOYO KISEN KAISHA: SAN-FRANCISCD. CAL. Ae g oe as as, ’ : wc | BA i es 2 4 wo ane Y is oe ¢ P " Aen f GARPAT R , i NOEMEN 7 %0 at 5 SYS t ee, eee ‘ 4 GENERAL . yt < - ~*®P 2G VELITEMS Re a ae J o 44 a Marking of the Military Mission in Prague struck in red on cover to California franked at the foreign rate. Lower cover originated in the Carpatho-Ukraine district in the extreme eastern part of Czechoslovakia -- with a previously unrecorded cachet. EASTERN SILESIA - CZECHOSLOVAK At the eastern end of Austrian Silesia and the northem fringe of Hungary, there were two small territories which became involved in a dispute between Czechoslovakia and Poland following the armistice. The first was the district of Teschen (Tesin in Czech; Cieszyn in Polish) located in the valley of the Olsa River. The other was the Zips-Arva (Spis-Orava) district to the east in the Carpathian Mountains. An Allied Control Commission had to be sent to the area to separate the antagonists. Initially, it was expected that a plebiscite would have to be held, but at the Spa conference on 10 July 1920, the Czechoslovaks and Poles agreed on the division of the two territories. Forerunners Teschen a Se em 4 January 1919 Ae Vaesse/ 19 / Ics Sorps Hofmann “ir &e Invaliden, Wirwen snd Karwin 5 September 1919 wie cir den Rurpachendenkmul-Foads. in tp ie! JT pd heflaae RS Ro ent corre EOS SO, AERA a iid 7~ dt Initially, old stamps of the Monarchy remained valid for postage. Later. the Czechoslovaks and Poles introduced their own stamps, which can be found in mixed franking with Austrian. EASTERN SILESIA Frydek S. O. Overprints 22 March 1920 Hrusov 20 July 1920 Mixed use of Czech overprints and unoverprinted values on parcel card is rather extraordinary. When the Allied Control Commission took over the administration of the territory (2 February 1920) it decided that special overprints reading "S. O. (Silesie Orientale) 1920" should be used rather than those of the two antagonists. In response, the Czechoslovak set was issued in mid-February 1920. EASTERN SILESIA S. O. Overprints Komise pro Because the Czechs controlled only a small portion of the city of Teschen at the time, a special postmark was introduced with wording of "Post Office of Czechoslovak Prefecture in Tesin." The Czechs felt that they would fare better territorially in the event of a plebiscite. Thus the cover shown above Pp le biscit na TéSi Slezska Ostrava 1 May 1920 Tesine 28 July 1920 nsku. was used to publicize the "Committee for a Plebiscite in Teschen.” 1 1 | 1 EASTERN SILESIA Stare Hamry ve Slez. S. O. Overprints 17 May 1920 Orlova 25 August 1920 - ke NCAR Stes ry emus se Yi ye: A Hrusov, Slez. Ge ai : Ls 20 July 1920 see dae ve 2 . _ » -. ‘i ta . 4) MBS tes - eye —~ Zola: CLALE Covers with Eastern Silesian stamps used from smaller villages are elusive and sought by specialists. EASTERN SILESIA Slezska Ostrava S. O. Overprints 10 March 1920 ae SOS Five thousand copies each of the two high values with portrait of Pres1 ‘ and black, respectively. but sources report that they were not placed on sale as they did not arrive at the postal counters in Eastern Silesia in time. Nevertheless, the above vaiue Jeciarec envelope (for 11.000— koruna in negotiable paper) is shown for the record. (Note stamps were cut o u u ce and later restored to the envelope.) EASTERN SILESIA Spisska Stara Ves S. O. Overprints 10 March 1920 Zips-Arva Usage Javorina 8 April 1920 peda Ts : —>-~.. SES SENS) Cob Tt: EERO Pitas Cae in R a ON/ “OG PP. Te "Nérodnie noviny*" Redakcia, administrdécia a expedicia - Vv Turéianek om - a « 2 jf Sv7atom Martine The S. O. overprints were also used in the Zips-Arva territory. However, the amount of mail matter processed in the tiny towns of this backwater area was minuscule, and examples on cover are extremely elusive. EASTERN SILESIA Teschen Military Mail 25 January 1919 18 February 1919 “Pee pane 24, ay bsg J 38 79 ps © swe age <9 Y weet 3 * ~ ee oe EE Stoberae w ss 3 => Nes Xx XN es eau S008 = AS 5 . my SAG, s \y ,° Sas = : & 1 x \ SS ee Se Zyes s 2 : S : a ‘ i S os. ys JN .f£ & a UX a a Dy ~ oS , 4 LY ° om & ? ° . 2 > iss * s a & « w “ ‘ i » ey LES 2 7 & ; g Se a ~ AMSA wha gh 3 oe BS fot. eS RA NT € : QA 8 a 2S Sy P Cay SR we es 3 “ NS women Q } aT ° = RAN a & fe Se , g “SN fr a OS OBS, oy. ee ~ &> . ps sR 8 US ~ ee Sk ae, coy: . “SE aN Rn aot * : SOS tS rR & oat ole RRP ISpe LS -.3 , & 2 S435 N i ISEB LES fp gi By, f RAAT se 8 eh oP es Bo wae RS a“ xX. By A e & 4 A. Log pgs i \ a am ow The approximately 10,000 Czechoslovak soldiers (mostly returned legionnaires from France and Italy, Sokols and other volunteers) assigned to the disturbed area of Eastern Silesia were entitled to send mail free of postage if appropriate unit cachets were applied. EASTERN SILESIA Tresor et Postes 184 French Forces 29 May 1920 a qh Cy Pending a vote by the citizens of Eastern Silesia to determine whether this territory should become part of Poland or Czechoslovakia, Allied troops were sent to maintain order. Above cover has cachet of the Headquarters of the Inter-Allied troops in Teschen and Spisz-Orava, the two districts in the plebiscite territory. KINGDOM OF THE SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES On 29 October 1918 a new South Slav state was proclaimed in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. Although the Croats and Slovenians of the former Empire would likely have preferred independence, they were willing to accept amalgamation with the Serbs as an an alternative to the territorial designs of the Italians. On 1 December, King Peter of Serbia was declared King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca). Later to be named the Kingdom of Jugoslavia in 1929. Forerunners Titel 30 November 1918 Pere § KeTst Va: “LEVELEZO-LABY yee ks ng eRe TEU iet te Nin emicauea f PEE fp AAP RE [RY Coe f RS . BS Ps ri erica. 24 mw f v3 ALU TIE — ia RA a RL Rg caged Os Leg oN se > a S a ee geee C ee Picture postcard with oval v af t ae 8 soa x na gS Vanguyete.. marking reading "Royal CES geo og ae hat Ror ep eas Serbian/Military STO Fak GG. BS Te) Re & Ce, itel.” 2, a. Ak oy ; 44,8 me eo ; Censor/Titel. Pa YAe LER Shes e \ sae tea Eo 43 © SEGRTLOAS TATE S SJ ans at-2% Rey . \ Sy ~ Oo At a. y= su kp e Sa She or) sG seat h at as ® 3 e { * Oya gNE Sy eee ey bog awa — Adee 1 OS rey “4 Pancsova } Hungarian postal card uprated for registration. Circular marking of "Royal Serbian/Military Censor/Panchevo."” “| Ekle, “tami ayeorda, Budapest, 1918, tee kt tate ete eS metre ane The stamps of the Monarchy continued to be valid for postage in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia and Slovenia for some months after the end of the war. They could be used either on their own or in mixed franking with the South Slav provisionals and definitives. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Croatian Provisionals thee eres eles ptehr ies EM Ae SHS high value overprints used on Hungarian parcel post card. Zapresic 29 November 1918 Vrpolje 20 December 1918 Early use of SHS overprints on a registered cover. . Raktarkon szama: dr* eres mas okmadny. kam. ocitovanja rode ili inih izprava. neme) vrst f 3 | tartalma\ ™(sadrzaj f Oe } Vriednost: re : hatlapon) : “t Mjesto za pri- Litt ws ta fran. trosrész, uteza, hdzszim \ jo grada, uLea, kucni drej J osta — Zadnia posta nec h A. ’ Postai eléjegyzések. — PoStanske zabiljezbe. he 4 Oh Porto: Kk 3 fe ee a Postarina: “7 Reet P 3H A _ 3e: Ertesitési v. kézh. dij: : ne Co . SEAina Gi ouEhviaat Eee a eee , & * So .. kg ee cccssees te Doglusnina ili dostévaina 4 foie - De Aandi Gh BE 2 4 a . 7 re A “aA - Osszey : K = ts wt xe Ukupno: 000 AS Seal = Se. 1 egies ‘a a csomag géngydletéra irni. — A csomagra és a azallitdlevélre Irt czimnex teljasen mag kel! | MS atl na omot zamotka. — Naslov na zamotku mora se posvema slagati s naslavom na odpremnc, . _ . Large quantities of Hungarian stamps remained in the Croatian post offices at the end of the war. A total of 33 different values were overprinted "SHS/Croatia" and placed on sale on 18 November 1918, only a few weeks after independence was declared. This issue was valid for postage until 14 April 1921. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Zagreb Croatian Definitives 29 November 1918 9 May 1919 an a aus First day cover of independence commemoratives. Philatelic cover a ae . NGS 4 ee with complete 8 7 Pig ce second Croatian fee (2 p OL fy? {0 Ly 2A fp definitives. rf CPP CE: OYE = Lecpoewte peaetectiert vey? f Aeagiel: The first definitives for Croatia were issued on 29 November 1918 to commemorate the one month anniversary of the declaration of independence. Only one other set was issued. ten values for regular postage plus a 2 filir for newspapers on 15 January 1919. These were in use until new stamps for the entire Kingdom were issued in 1921. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Slovenian Mixed Franking Mixed franking of Austrian and new Slovenian stamps on old Austrian parcel card. [r—Gatung: fo taba | Ljubljana 28 February 1919 Trzic na Gorenjsrem 17 March 1919 Mixed franking with Austrian and Slovenian stamps on clipping from Hungarian parcel card. abi rovatok ahs fis Se ntti Sak a yreierss we a ja, illet¥e hely-! g20 ‘lenyomata: yo Neumarktl, Oberkrata sc| PUSTBEGLE[LADR 3 at ee ¢ PER enn nae fi lst Inhalt J An. . ; ss - . ts . CS § Strafe, oe ad, Slat, ary letzte Bost (Land) Fm ~ } Gebihren ..... Ricsed : by i . : A a ese and ‘A w2 es ” rt H SF wenn nce wc ccc aecnwcens TD cease eene- ” . E ae wee ony —— TP twee nnn ns ce eee enw ee ees TS secwwscoves Pty wh ‘4 Summe Be seven b 4 Senne ee ee BO CK GD Se a ah ne ee ee se! Considerable quantities of Austrian stamps remained in the Slovenian post offices at the end of the war. These issues remained valid for postage and many were used in combination with Slovenian stamps. As an aside.a total of 33 different values were overprinted "SHS/Slovenija/29 X 1918." However,due to a warehouse fire, only about 100 sets were salvaged and these had lost their gum due to water damage. so were never issued. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Ljubljana 12 June 1919 First Slovenian Definitives iataiinictcenntigiig Po SS 4 Velike Lasce 3 \ Cote . Baseaaa: 15 October 1919 i La "Chainbreakers" used on censored cover to Austria. et n | ie. ee, raljeely.. 2 0 h rm = 4 n t _ Oznaéenje posiljatve (paket, zaboj, vreéa) Higher values used on parcel card to Bosnia. Prejemnik ew definitive set on 3 January 1919, with additional s. The low values all depicted a "chainbreaker" who The Slovenians were able to issue the initial values of an values becoming available over the following three month symbolized independence from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Ljubljana Second Slovenian Definitives 27 August 1920 Zagreb 30 January 192] Onn abhore _ * ip ie . oot cS Cay Ne Pion pre eye ee New chainbreaker a, . WwW - | postal card uprated 3 . . a a for use to Italy. “HTS oF | Sree e 7 fee : Shee : Censored at Trieste. ama, : myTneN eT PIN 4. 2A, Higher values used on parcel card to Serbia. t, rte tt * : ‘ In June 1920, a currency change-over took place in which dinars (as used in Serbia) replaced old banknotes. This required a new issue of stamps, which included a more stylized chainbreaker and a new portrait of King Peter. St. Paul 13 June 1919 SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Slovenian Military Mail Maribor 16 July 1919 > ’ = a xs a he Xb aviele i) O jad 2 ine Jit he, f ( CL. reg, ah Vi VDE bt ee . a i anes sch spud ss xy ® ; , z fecdreved tease Bag” pon wit om — , + AP bboy + sed Lake 12 OAt4 Z 7 oP 2 ‘a]e]UEAL] Wy RIpuy dees wlawey onl Vere 4 of ¢ 4h OCA 68 ale banerdtiud ne he ‘ RelA "A mG {294 ate ott ; ne ey 6 fF 2 cgintes ay fn} (an “1c. he a ze : Oe tae etree tb 4b fy, , jlte feos LeGeqa Eee oe co ai fe ee EAP 1 1h eee, He Leace OY ar, 5 as eC AOL tet yy ta fs CH dee, Stabe opin “ane CL ibrar dh te fe / Qaued °S og IS ‘aadazM jasof Ivpsa, a ” 09 SA Oh a eK tae i 1 7 : spt olf A ‘and! on picture postcard a4 a ae to USA. Censored & at Dubrovnik. ° ~ “3 ==a57 Split—Spalato ic / a wh = ws “as de — sia - i aah 4 : ea “oe OS TANSKA’POPRATNICY”." oy poe Te per ete Gee eee eae i te ms INDIRIZZO POSTALE ACCOMPAGNATORI ‘ attung — Vrst — Oggetto Inhalt — Sadriina Wett—Vrijednost—Valdre | a. Contenuto Lee I: i Dane be J ye ie y Pyns ¢‘ 3 s : y ao _ 2 ar ’ / osp. ee A : ae » . a Danaea LU OD PRAL ON POA ME £ 5 we. $ 4a Tae ; qi DA Lua ASLO fh COLALA LAA OS Crm 1 ‘ al BO eg Pr \ 1 - ADO SE: -. 4 trafe, Hausnummey” e "4 a” ; Ge" lica, kuéni broj a } ' &g- BE pares | K...h 4 ia, numero di casa 2 LL LABSAR IA i “Beef a f etzte Post (Land) a a Tasse J 4 adnja posta pokes ao \ ltima posta (Provincia) oo 98 seteneens siesta -€ stark umrahmten Teile sind vom Absender auszufiilien — Poéiljagé : obrubljene djelove — Gij spazi mareati vanno riempi tt 4 { = SESE ae ee Bivona Pl | Riad i . ‘ ct sewicht Postleitvermerk —Sostanska oznaka ee 4 -eZina puta — Avviamento 5 eso - 5 os PP wee eee 99 woe > be 2 bx See can K....hf ‘ | Totale 1 , = SSS SESS ae OS SS SSS SEES SSE IG SEE i J The former Austrian Province of Dalmatia extended southeastward al Cattaro. Unlike most of the other areas annexed to the South SI the early SHS period but used those of the other provinces. ong the Adriatic Sea from near Fiume to av state. it did not issue any new stamps during SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Bosnian Forerunners Tee ge RT cit crt enn one ne meres ne erm ens R$ Higa aR MAGEE 2a Se Ly fiohs he mon, *s Sarajevo 7 February 1919 Trnovo 5 March 1919 7 x Bosnian 10 heller postal card mailed to Hungary. Note that the German inscription was removed from the postmark. Unoverprinted Bosnian 8 heller postal card that was uprated with 2 heller Express stamp and mailed to Bohemia. Large quantities of stamps and pos territory became part of the South aN grees aE BN 3 tal stationery were found in the post offices of Bosnia-Hercegovina when the Slav state. Those without the portrait of the Emperor were tolerated by the SHS authorities during 1919 but most of the available supply was suitably overprinted before sale. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Bosnian Provisionals Sarajevo’ Bosnian a parcel CATC __ _ ittteaceensntescessauss himecs showing provisional overprints on i pictorial and 00 (Tr trttrstrreteteeettensucentpeetenentnch LAA LMA. LAA / Emperor Sante Poit Posliednja POSID, + seeerresseenecersssrssnenseneassaenessectencrvsssecessssevestiarioeecceccccsce Seasonal Ss Franz Josef Honeys nessa } portrait stamps. geri = PoStanske zabiljeZbe — Tomranere slg ubeade CiLHIfR WAI TOCTARHY ! Zuiammen Yrynue A total of 43 different stamps with appropriate overprints were issued in Bosnia, beginning on 11 November 1918 Ukupao Nate Rc emesoiecenrenes K Bihac 4 March 1919 Sarajevo 15 July 1919 Old 8 heller postal card surcharged 10 heller and overprinted "S.H.S." 4 and continuing through the ensuing four months. As was true with regard to the other regional issues, these stamps were valid for postage throughout the liberated areas of the South Slav state. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Pazaric Bosnian Definitives 23 March 1919 Brcko 19 August 1919 ine aid QO a “7 Mim in Pag: ct > pei Sarajevo (Sosnien) 3 be en wound CENZ':- " Old 8 heller postal card uprated by new 2 heller stamp and mailed to Austria. \\. peCts tae iat sed hist At “elove jeep ¢e lef ewww an £ itr ab i hy t Aaaace 4 Abtere * tod 9 ie ew baprls Picture postcard Lene At Land Pel eda fi franked with mix of new 10 heller and surcharged 5 heller stamps and y ane r mailed to Poland. Har x Ye b, 7 4 Censor marking f\ b Cosel! , 32 ree in age hy wi of Sarajevo. epee & “> Nae ye eos EG ig / : Favs san ace Cy 08 ee . ‘a | Haimatbilder’ YE : 1 LD Co. M. % ki aa Rethe Nr 2180 i hopes ar: The only definitive stamps issued by the SHS authorities in Bosnia was a reprinting of the 1913 newspaper stamps depicting a Bosnian girl. However, the new issue was perforated and intended for use as regular postage. In addition, the old imperforate stamps were surcharged with new values. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Banat-Bacska Forerunners iNED BY S i cy a Ra _> Registered cover to Fiume franked with Royal Hungarian stamps. Note Serbian censor marking of Novi Sad, the new Slavic name for Ujvidek. wT TE ee < Bal O1é 2 . ULontT 42 a Pe = 479 3 | ujvidek 1 |< 3 ' < __ Following the armistice, the Serbian army advanced into southern Hungary Danube and Tisza Rivers) and the Banat (east of the Tisza). Temesvar, the November 1918. This latter territory came into dispute with Romania, a thirds of the Banat being transferred to the Romanians and Temesvar evacu Ujvidek 18 March 1919 29 March 1919 Even during the Serbian occupation, the Hungarian postal authorities continued to supply of stamps for use in this area until the Bolshevik takeover in Budapest during March 1919, VIED Oe So Nite, at Aa, Ol ey - PRES 2h . => ~~ ws Bate Rage and occupied the Bacska (between the capital of the Banat was entered on 10 nd was resolved with the eastern two- ated by the Serbs on 27 July 1919. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Bezdan First & Second Banat-Bacska Provisionals 29 November 1919 SN ge ptm a eg a Temesvar 28 July 1919 Both values of the first issue surcharges used on cover to Zombor. LEIPNIK MANO OKL. MERNOK HITES TORVENYSZEK! SZAKERTO MUSZAKI IRODAJA Temesvar-Belv , Agrarpalota tl. em. R 2| Temesvar 1 | LT. 1] 9188 ja | The second issue surcharges used on registered cover tO —is meee : Me peacoat Bucharest. Note , . Romanian censor ©0000 meeetesnntenseses ee marking. Csendes Testvérek, Temesvar. é Once fresh supplies of stamps were no longer forthcoming from Budapest, the most widely used denominations began to run out. As a result, the Banat district authorities issued surcharged 10 and 45 filler stamps (for regular and registered letters) on 15 May 1919. Three additional surcharges were issued on 1 July 1919. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Temesvar Third Banat-Bacska Provisionals 28 July 1919 Ee CRE aan ee] Cir an TTI 7 | * a eel F I oe prerers we ee” First day cover (above) with "Banat, Bacska" issue used in mixed franking with Hungarian stamps. Cover with five different values of the Banat, Bacska stamps used the day after Serbia > 3 ‘ f o> withdrew from R € Temesvar J : Foote Pe ea Temesvar. ‘ “ LNo Let. AF] Me In the interim between the withdrawal of the Serbians and the arrival of the Romanians,on 28 July 1919 the Banat district authorities issued a new set of overprints reading “Banat, Bacska" for use in the territory. Although not strictly an issue under Serbian occupation, they are included here to maintain the historical perspective. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Perlak Medjimurje Local Issue 4 February 1919 10 February 1919 2 nee ee ee coi | se . = aS The old Hungarian postmarks and the registry labels were used until new supplies could be provided. (The Croatian name of the town would be Prelog.) a Benne _ @ The Medjimurje territory was located between the Drava and Mura Rivers. After the armistice, it was occupied by Croatian and Serbian troops and annexed to Croatia. Royal Hungarian stamps overprinted by hand under local authority were issued on 22 December 1918. They remained in use until Croatian stamps became available. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Lendvavasarhely Prekomurje Local Issues 12 August 1919 7 aa 7 oo a : — > Belatincz , ° / 7 September 1919 “ | The Lendvavasarhely (the Croatian name we was Dobrovnik) issue ‘) of 10 August 1919. The overprint was applied alike to Royal Hungarian stamps, some of the Republic Overprints and some Republic definitives. % .- The Belatincz issue : (below) was issued on 12 August 1919 with \ "SHS" overprint. G.Franjo Kriz. ni pease ieee - Sefranjo Kz izeni dye 2 atet tet Ce la a ea a yg an a. foe. . 4rinskega c.5 * a a | | Prekomurje (across the Mura) was located to the north of the Mura River. Under the terms the armistice, it remained a part of Hungary. However, following the collapse of the Bolshevik government in Budapest. Prekomurje was occupied by South Slav troops in August 1919 SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Bojna Posta Vr. 504 Military Mail 23 April 1919 i ge ep ey 7 ~ : 8 fa RN OS Sarajevo bs } . fp ON 28 August 1919 eo nea Bdeyuy ll Fo,” . { fh Oe. be. * Murska Sobota yo. OY \e ae/ 18 February 1920 7 at 5 # 482) aS. Ey 3s SS % ; FS Tus? —————————— : 7 8 wi fit 4 8 EN I Tr op A’ Sth Lf. i NS : 77 ES i = 7 SK Gs Le polled cae eaniemntemicg b we } ——=S -...§Had [ES] — AONMCHA KAPTA pa me c AOC™ Iz). CPIICKOF PATHHKA (aan 37 i o& 8 es BS mS SLUM CI CAR GG) LeM gp orl ee a 4: Sh tl eit tI eR oe a No } s,fapec ap ~ 2 f . #. i. . . 7 “ . a i a as i ™, fi jr Lactaten. <€r Serbian and South Slav forces were active in most areas of the new nation. Above items show representative usage of Serb FPO and civil post offices, with all such mail being carried free of charge. Upper card from Temesvar in the Banat during the Serbian occupation. Middle card sent by a major from Bosnia to Hercegovina. Lower cover from 3rd machine gun battalion in the Prekomurje territory. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Occupation of Austria SHS Celovec June 1919 Vojaski Postni Urad Celovec 22 June 1919 ye ties South Slav troops occupied areas of Carinthia in the period prior to the province, there was a Slovenian post office in Operation for just six provisional straight-line postmark w plebiscite. In Klagenfurt. the capital of the Celovec (Klagenfurt)." weeks in June and July 1919. At first, a as used, tat it was later replaced with a cds reading "Military Post Office SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Velikovec 3 September 1919 Occupation of Austria 10 July 1920 % = ts, ~ REZ, RODS Am a SY A: PP 3 Se x F LY SY a Qi {3 a5 lt ys - Ve AE REPS SW y XL La ASas & if é 68 VA} PNY SH io WO AP ye Ley *) axe LN ie Fad Ze) PAN YP PEAS ANS ae en ee a, WN SS oN Ro of al SK R mM g SA “yf Way F AYO LAW a bY NON S\S % sy Sf Raewen an Lead ipvestaes VE, SASS LARES PB ed ANTE APARS ES & 7 N . - * 4S a eRe PE MPN AS 8 Shadedours, A tae AER 5 "i a et SluZbeno. Another town occupied in South Carinthia prior to the plebiscite was Velikovec (Vélkermarkt). The Slovenians introduced their own cancellation and stamps in the post office there. Shown are a picture postcard sent in the civil mail to Ljubljana and a postcard sent by a Slovenian official free of postage. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Jezica Occupation of Austria 9 October 1920 Provisional Issue Borovlje 10 October 1920 mes Shomasee ee ‘e a a ‘4 veal Cutt Not to be outdone by the Austrians. the Slovenians also issued a set in September-October 1920 as propaganda for the plebiscite. These were overprints on newspaper stamps reading "KGCA 1920” (which was the abbreviation for Carinthian Plebiscite Zone A) and new values in para and dinara. They were used in the towns then occupied by South Slav forces. Examples of postmarks known to exhibitor are all dated between 2 and 21 October. Vélkermarkt 9 May 1919 SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Occupation of Austria Military Mail Velikovec 27 June 1919 ; , re | viag | 8 4 | eo : QS fe . wo te + meal sw r176y | eRuwa7Ty '¥ Agpre 636) ————— re 4 inn wigan 9 — HPS | Rey veyragea Epes 7 | Dewey a Aas eee ~ Vomntrone® | “fp I | oLpey. vee? Zé a ries ‘on 3 rrIDPAOAL FOL ITI 8 POR - prpOT Hg POY TH ore area amgar eore Dar rh ee Gy as I- i Tyne mit ‘ee ‘Po stop Wh ree rh OS ye rroctjo4 \ N fo " | Te aene aber irae e pre Camas a ‘st Y ‘ay de “f Lays pomnr / “ e/a . | ss | 7a ay. | Plletrotermn re ters sali 2. Me 6 Ma te ze devs Ch eine le Of Ceetetnn ie" = 7 Upane, Choe Qe 7 Per ae T. at Plevna: é 4 phew, ct, oy" o , & lee ty cee, — : . € ci Jlorotay po Cant t mt : = e i | 7 free Soldiers’ mail from the South Slav forces operating in Carinthia prior to the plebiscite was free of postage if an appropriate unit cachet was applied, as shown above. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Puspoklak Occupation of Hungary 2 August 1919 First Baranya Provisionals Villany ! 21 November 1919 Cover with three different values of "Baranya 1919" stamps. Use from towns other than the capital. Pecs. is unusual. Jia, 880 | ae, tt 0 QE Avereviay ) Ee ws aoe In addition to the areas which were annexed to the South Slav state, the Serbian army also occupied the County of Baranya in southern Hungary between the Tisza and Drava Rivers from 15 November 1918 to 20 August 1920. As in the Banat, Hungarian stamps were supplied until the Bolshevik takeover of Budapest. When supplies ran out. a set of overprints. some surcharged with new values, was prepared and placed on sale on 5 May 1919. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Pees Occupation of Hungary 10 January 1920 Second Baranya Provisionals Uszog 23 February 1920 Felado neve : allasa/ (foglaikozas ek Ae SeEZO-LAP Registered envelope as well as Lettercard showing uprating with semi-circular “Baranya” stamps. PP LIL PIO LD OO CT ALR Pa aT f {s ¢ Le oe : Lo : k é ? Z ao og. #S Be valfami “a ze Fe M. kir. AHami nyduas on ad 3 i 4 ; t ‘ - 2 44 Lae oe tm BE As supplies of the first overprints began to run short. a second series was authorized. In this case, the "Baranya" overprint was semi-circular instead of horizontal and the "1919" was left off. All of these were surcharged with new values. Both Baranya issues remained valid for postage until 21 August 1921. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES U.S.S. Olympia American Forces in Dalmatia 15 March 1919 Spalato 17 March 1919 as. owt of oneee ii i ! ‘ SSS SSS, 1913 G. A. Me After the Armistice, U.S.S. Olympia was assigned to patrol the Dalmatian Coast. Cover dates from this period. Picture postcard from a crewman from the ship was mailed in Spalato (Split) two days later. It was censored by the Italians at Zara. SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Postal Express Service No. 901 American Forces in Dalmatia 19 January 1919 26 February 1919 TE Te ieee ot oe Von Za 45 GN ee Oe Res x “O9P ESR. ah oa BES Pvt. Glenn | 0. Gombe r, Fersonnel Office, 2nd Bn. 332nd Inf, " Cattare,Dalmatia. AEY APO 901 Sage sae rs “MANS FIELD, “OHTO, U.S eke tte ee . 4 Siete Nata toe vot nas wes upuey, Matiad .alakanpecst mannan On 21 November 1918, the 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 332nd Infantry Regiment arrived at Cattaro. A small detachment (E Company) was sent to Zelenica, located 15 miles away and the site of an Austrian seaplane base. The American forces were withdrawn on 28 March 1919. While in Dalmatia, mail was sent to APO 901 in Milan for processing. Bret tara S SUSE Lat ON OE eS ete an te ans SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Ljubljana French Forces in Slovenia 5 July 1919 11 February 1920 In the aftermath of the withdrawal of the Austro-Hungarian forces, French troops entered Slovenia. The above examples have similar unit markings of the commission operating the railway station in Ljubljana. The earlier version is inscribed "French Army in Hungary" and the later one "Army of the East." SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Tresor et Postes 520D French Forces in Croatia 25 January 1919 7 June 1919 Tresor et Postes *_* 16 March 1919 LY CROLL WF EE EPR GATE RAJ Lorne =e ° ' one Slo ahah aie P 5) a prava pridrzi 1 Svat CY 5 The French also were sent to Croatia. Field post office #520D was located in Zagreb at the time the above cards were mailed and remained in service until November 1919. Unit marking on the lower card inscribed "French Army in Hungary/Railway Station Commission.” SERBS, CROATS & SLOVENES Vag. Etapes 22 French Forces in Dalmatia 5 January 1919 SS eaipartgias . eg treeg Novt - dimches di Cobh, “is be. MT = 19/8. Qadmadio. Se Chere Maraine , 1 Bot - 2 Ablteatir, Hehe | a «a 6 eee Tresor et Postes *_C* sf 28 July 1919 Sisak October 1920 ~S ay A — bg acd . . Igo t . i : ~ ~ é “ : 4 Bin a® 4 © 4 : . é EB be se . ; ee te " EM ‘ . tt : 5 $ Me ae a by 4 ‘ fy s° s \ ’ ee ro Dead" 4D UD y Bsuad | 5a rere Ue Selene. | Pret 0h Bho -k@Q - 42% a ate G shay . ae ee ee Following the withdrawal of the Austrian forces, French troops entered Dalmatia. The Vaguemestres d’Etapes 22 (Regimental military mail office) marking was used at Kotor. Card from Split (probably sent via FPO 520C at Antivari) to an officer at FPO 511 at Itea. Cover is from Sisak, near the South Slav border with Italy. POLAND On 11 November 1918 a Polish regency council assumed executive power in Warsaw with the surrender of the Germans. The former Austrian territories of Galicia and Silesia, sometimes known as "Little Poland,” became part of the independent Polish state. However, both areas were in dispute with their neighbors -- Ukraine and Romania in the first instance and Czechoslovakia in the latter -- so the final borders were unsettled for some time. Forerunners Lwow 27 November 1918 partisans. Lwow (Lemberg), capital of Eastern Galicia, was occupied by Polish forces on 23 November after fierce fighting with bands of local Ukrainian Trzoiana 14 January 1919 the Cover to New York has military censor marking of Lwow. i | », POSTANWEISUNG us PRZEKAZ POCZTOWY: TOUTOBUE TI RAS ap Strafe, Hausnummer ulica iliczba domu yrtung i unearo Jouy letzte Post (Land) ostatnia poczta (kraj) NOCIIHA DOTA (Rpaii) Raum zum Auf- } kleben der Brief- marken ee £7 ALG esata; yp CO ae Miejsce do Przy- lasing tv ens ¢ HSCHEL Die stark umrahmten Rubriken sind vom Absender auszufiillen Silnie zakreslone rubryki ma wypeinié nadawca Cuwrbao O6Be{eui PYOPHEM KE RHNORUMTH BHCMAIAO THE Annahmenummer Nr. przyjecia qq, “AAD Aufgabetag asi donia Bezirksstempel Piecze¢ okregu dyr. Teqarsa yap. vspyra 4 Unterschrift Podpis urzgdnika a pocztoweKo \ = Wiqgnae mourpsoro -\ aes yYDeTRred te ¥ ade i = ; f x x 2. 4 So Th wl é 2 ser SEs Sear ~ aS b 4 - =< aS 5 ~ X fyb Pras a 2 2, : : ten BE MEY gee. ' m2 9 he Hh & ea ERESH, SS iF ade es DrG.diw Lhd ee ath Ayloryy zastrzezdne { mt i xv 4 { PM : “ my Haczelne Dowsdztao Oddzial IV. Sekcja Lekarsk Ree Si st ao “Ad, R.N. D. No 55428/1V. i © - oF e fg C Qe 3) _ 2 ois ; My Cr! . ’ a ie t : - ¢ KA i O " - L) oy iV cod ! ae Ss, Poczta Polowa W.P. 12 28 February 1919 Fr. Gl. Poczta Polowa | 2 May 1919 Glowna Frontowa Poczta Polowa No Ila 22 October 1919 a «| Warszawa. lartdgarn OY so Postal card above was sent from Army Base Post Office I at Przemys] to Switzerland, thus requiring payment of postage. Lower card sent from ABPO II in Lwow. The first Polish field post office (#12) was established at Lwow others for a total of 68. Of course, many of these were used inc not involve Galicia. on 20 December 1918, followed in due course by onnection with the Polish-Soviet conflicts and did POLAND Tresor et Postes *_* French Military Mission 22 June 1919 Tresor et Postes 309 16 October 1919 Naki. J, Xatz, K-xkéw ~ Nr. 999/32 ‘ . z Yen: ae | = &. & ? Nicaea iether ar Ria te eebennteat In the expectation of achieving independence for their homeland following the war, Polish volunteers fought on the Western Front against the Germans. After the armistice, these units (accompanied by their French officers) were transported home in April 1919. Above cards sent back to France from Krakow in western Galicia. POLAND 10 July 1919 French Military Mission Tresor et Postes *_* 7 September 1920 Wop lt _ oo Wydawaicingh Salone Malarzy Pai w paw : Field post cards sent by members of the French Military Mission from Brzezany and Lwow in eastern Galicia. EASTERN SILESIA - POLISH Based on an agreement which was signed on 28 July 1920, the Poles and Czechoslovaks divided the territories of Teschen and Zips-Arva. The Czechs obtained somewhat more territory than they then occupied, and their army advanced to take possession of the additional towns between 6 and 10 August. This brought to an end the dispute over this area -- until it surfaced again in 1938. Polish Provisionals Oderberg , 23 January 1919 ' a ora 4 ~? : Cane 7 ~ CneRBEnc AC: a. ‘ l b a a a ies 4 Se YW? . vox ae \ CA rRuXrouw ir sass pcaesteescrasactacns sctspeeeseSitcsanisnctemsateg 3 NanisainAt, Ci ee The Poles, who were in possession of much of the Teschen district at the time, introduced their own overprinted stamps in early 1919. EASTERN SILESIA Cieszyn Polish Definitives 19 May 1919 17 December 1919 “rn ca | | | During 1919 the Poles introduced their normal definitive stamps, treating the Teschen district as a regular part of the republic. EASTERN SILESIA Cieszyn 25 May 1920 S. O. Overprints 23 October 1920 Picture postcard showing bridge over the Olsa River at Teschen with tram stopped at Czechoslovak border post in foreground and Polish frontier on the north side of the river. The Allied Control Commission took over the administration of the territory on 2 February 1920 and decided that the protagonists should not use their own stamps in the disputed areas but issue special overprints reading "S$. O. (Silesie Orientale) 1920." In the case of the Polish set, the date of issue was 15 April 1920. EASTERN SILESIA Trzynietz S. O. Overprints 23 April 1920 a _ | ~ a" Chybi Bahnhof er Le) 2 June 1920 : - . : ‘ i iV4S 70d) a Sn Se 2 Covers showing international registration usage from small villages to Cologne and Vienna. EASTERN SILESIA Bielitz/Osterr. Schles. S. O. Overprints 20 August 1920 Bielsko na Slasku 15 December 1922 Bielitz, isterr. Schles. ————_——_———r— a— | Ee ‘POLSKAT. Chie CFB COR eg - 7 " e + at f wad : PocztalsJpoczTak; ‘ Bikseg Be ta geeg 3 ey — ase ae : se, _ _ i eerbikbovul i : = The Polish S.O. overprints lost their postal validity on 10 September 1920 after being in use for less than five months and were replaced by normal Polish stamps. EASTERN SILESIA Military Mail $e, email very 177 ge 7 erent me nee 4 Sf BPEPS t L, avery }Otere. a 8 ¢ wv A al> 4 nen 77 OPP “rey payarenntafe 8 ag ‘ 5g z wi vv a OD-e-y ys ory” page? 2? Zs ae 2 aa oe ey 3 AX S s eS 4 «x ba tas ee af a i. * Be > £1 #: + obsder xe Ne YS 7 2 3 | ah a aa Polish forces sent to the disturbed area of Eastern Silesia were en unit cachets were applied. The above postcard was sent by amem FPO 28 located in Cieszyn (Teschen). aug 3 enw toy ongeruy ofa 3 FEE > rh = a OQ? te age z, EA , fe 3 ¢ Dre AP PLO - ee pres ye 1 w/ 4 5 apy ag D.C +g PL \ ae c, 4 0 Fee 4 oe han 379" wrene oe . decade d RS wow 2? > TRG wh owe ve ue oy oey aye YY yee “a hewn weedy ps apr ww WV s 1% wr ytd} % ep ye t 2 “oe ~ nH i} yp Rapeqrre Uh Bl 4 very a i Sel The stamps of the Monarchy. whether ove Republic during its brief period of existence | nop) r wy \ . pr rprinted or not. continued valid for postage in the Western Ukraine is Winaa RL ip. iM “92 ver) ~ Of i raleeri AMAR 234), “bib J WESTERN UKRAINE Stanislau Provisional Overprints 21 November 1918 Kolomea 23 May 1919 Cover to Kalusz franked with 20 aa {-—F heller of the first Yo provisional set of poowie or hand overprints. f Registered cover with examples of stamps and special registry label of the second provisional overprints. The first overprints for Western Ukraine were issued on 20 November 1918 and used for only two days. A second set was sold starting on 12 December 1918 and included two special labels issued to pay the fees for local and national registration. WESTERN UKRAINE Stanislau Provisional Overprints 28 April 1919 17 May 1919 “ee Weeiee eS ee ee 7, oho IMCTIBRAS 3 34 Mourozas kaptrowa. — Carte postale. _— < + * oe Cover shown above franked with 6 sh. value of third issue as well as four postage due stamps used as regular postage applied on reverse. thea...” ree Badopdnae Yxpainesxnit + apTucr-mMa.1ap s Amspociii Hjaxa. a Mastonxn a0 « yrpaineseyx Ha- powHix nicens. Peintre Oucrainien - Amvrosij Jdaha. Mlustrations‘aux ~ chants popuiaires ~oucrainiens. Penpoayxuyia Patriotic postcard of Ukraine franked with 20 sh. value. oe ~. NN ~~ = i: “ae ane Ty Wane A third set of overprints with abbreviations for "Ukrainian National Republic Posts” and denominations in shahiv and hryvni was placed on sale on 18 March 1919. WESTERN UKRAINE Stanislau Provisional Overprints 13 May 1919 Registered local cover to franked with three stamps of the fourth provisionals. YAEL a. beget ff _ Ch: we Sie a ee ft Cl LLY ee CLUE 5 ee Registered first day cover of the high values of the fourth provisional overprints. 7 Stanislau i Ex ofo 104 * # Dg teas ams: Om: « Pou : s The fourth provisionals were overprinted in Vienna with "Z.U.N.R.” and placed on sale on 8 May 1919 for most values and 13 May for the high values. As with other Western Ukraine issues. they are unusually scarce on cover. Valid for postage only until the Poles occupied the area on 16 July 1919. Stanislau 21 March 1919 og S m Frank inian WESTERN UKRAINE Ukra t An eT eee ae tae ew ay AB Cees Tae epee —ermemne ¢: st NS fo Ra a Ae ae entre tt ee et ee tea shaw wate Deland cnatent es n* "4 oe Li usage. da s that stamps ve indicate A very unusu >) 1 An¢ rn ‘er show \ a stage in Western eliverv co a 9 istered special accepted for p g = cin Kyiv were & epubli Although not mentioned in the literature. the r of the Ukrainian Nationa! R WESTERN UKRAINE Tsentr. Ust. Ukrainian Military Post 26 August 1920 | Stavka A. a * 5 15 October 1920 Ly [ Al eee at the "Tsentralni ft Ustanovi (Central Establishment),” received 3 days later at Army HQ. | Cover postmarked Registered cover (below) sent from "Stavka (HQ)" io Vienna. In December 1919, the Red Army captured Kyiv and overran nearly the entire Ukraine. The government, under Petlyura, retreated with the remnant of the army to Kamieniec Podolski and in April 1920 entered into an alliance with Poland. On this basis. a courier field post service was established in eastern Galicia in August 1920. primarily for the transmission of messages between the government in exile in Tarnow and army headquarters. Ukrainian stamps were given appropriate overpririts. with ié different values being created. However. the Poles and the Soviet government signed a peace agreement on 18 March 1921. ending independent Ukrainian activity.